Franklin Repository: July 8, 1863Go To Page : 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |
Description of Page: The page includes a poem for the deceased Crawford Washington.
Invasion Of Pennsylvania!
(Column 1)Summary: The Repository provides a detailed account of the Rebel General Jenkins's first invasion and occupation of Chambersburg, which began on June 17. It reports that Jenkins prevented much damage, but "robbed" stores (paying with "bogus money"--Confederate scrip) of most goods. His men took arms and horses as contraband of war. Many horses and most of the black population escaped to the mountains. The Repository calculated $300,000 in property damage.
Full Text of Article:Political Items
Jenkins' Rebel Guerillas on a Raid!
A Full Week in Franklin Co.!
The Whole Southern Line Plundered!
$300,000 of Property Stolen!
New York First to the Rescue!
Franklin County has had a full week of rebel guerilla rule, and is now, in the Southern portion, plundered of all horses and cattle, excepting the few successfully secreted in the mountains.
On Sunday evening, the 16th inst., the dark clouds of contrabands commenced rushing upon us, bringing the tidings that Gen. Milroy's forces at Martinsburg had been attacked and scattered, and that the rebels under Gen. Rhodes were advancing upon Pennsylvania. With due allowance for the excessive alarm of the slaves, it was manifest that the rebels were about to clear out the Shenandoah Valley, and, that once done, the Cumberland, with all its teeming wealth, would be at rebel mercy. On Sunday night our people were much excited, and the question of protection became one of paramount interest. To inquiries the authorities at Washington answered that the aspect of the war just at present rendered it unwise to divide or weaken the army of the Potomac, and that Pennsylvania must furnish her own men for her defence [sic]. A call from the President was issued to that effect, which is noticed elsewhere.
On Monday morning the flood of rumors from the Potomac fully confirmed the advance of the rebels, and the citizens of Chambersburg and vicinity, feeling unable to resist the rebel columns, commenced to make prompt preparation for the movement of stealable property. Nearly every horse, good, bad and indifferent, was started for the mountains as early on Monday as possible, and the Negroes darkened the different roads Northward for hours, loaded with house hold effects, sable babies, &c and horses and wagons and cattle crowded every avenue to places of safety. About [illegible] o'clock in the morning, the advance [illegible] Milroy's retreating wagon-train dashed in town, attended by a few cavalry, and a [illegible] affrighted wagon-masters, all of whom declared that the rebels were in hot pursuit that a large portion of the train was captured, and that the enemy was about to enter Chambersburg. This startling information, coming from men in uniform, who had fought valiantly until the enemy had got nearly within sight of them, naturally gave fresh impetus to the citizens, and the skedaddle commenced in magnificent earnestness and exquisite confusion. Men, women and children who seemed to think the [illegible] so many cannibals rushed out the turnpike, and generally kept on the leading thoroughfares as if they were determined to be captured, if the rebels were anywhere within range and wanted them. We watched the motley cavalcade rush along for a few hours, when it seems to have occurred to some one to inquire whether the rebels were not some distance in the rear; and a few moments of reflection and dispassionate inquiry satisfied the people that the enemy could not be upon us for several hours at least. The railroad men were prompt and systematic in their efforts to prepare for another fire, and by noon all the portable property of the company was safely under control to be hauled and moved at pleasure. The more thoughtful portion of our people who felt it a duty to keep out of rebel hands, remained until the cutting of telegraph communication south, and the reports of reliable scouts rendered it advisable to give way to the guerilla army of plunderers.
The Rebels Advance on Greencastle.
[Note: The edge of this page is missing.]
Greencastle, being but five miles north of Maryland line, and in the direct route of rebels, was naturally enough in the high-state of excitement on Sunday night and Monday morning. Exaggerated rumors had of course flooded them, and every half-hour a stampede was made before the imagined rebel columns. Hon. John Rows at last determined to reconnoiter and he mounted a [illegible] and started out toward Hagerstown. A little distance beyond, he was captured by a squad of rebels, and held until Gen. Jenkins came up. Jenkins asked Rows his [illegible] and was answered correctly. He subsequently asked Mr.___________, who was with [illegible], what Rows's name was, and upon being told that the name had been given to [illegible] correctly, he insisted that the Major [illegible] been an officer in the United States [illegible] Mr.____assured Jenkins that the [illegible] had never been in the service, and he [illegible] satisfied. (Jenkins had evidently [illegible] Major Howe with his son, the [illegible] Leutenant [sic] Colonel Rows of the 126th.) [illegible] then asked Mr._______whom he had [illegible] for at the last Presidential election. [illegible] answered that he had voted for Lincoln. D[illegible] Jenkins gave the following chaste [illegible] reply --"Get off that horse, you [illegible] Abolitionist." The horse was surrendered, and the same question was pro-[illegible] to Major Rows, who answered that he had [illegible] for Douglas, and had scratched every Breckinridge man off his ticket. [Note: Folds down the middle of this column makes much of the text illegible.] Jenkins answered--"You can ride your horse as long as [illegible] like --I voted for Douglas myself." [illegible] He then demanded to know what forces were in Greencastle and what fortifications. [illegible] Roy told him that the town was defenceless, but Jenkins seemed to be cautious [illegible] might be caught in a trap. He advanced cautiously, reconnoitered all suspicious buildings and finally being fully satisfied [illegible] there was not a gun in position and not a [illegible] under arms, he resolved upon capturing [illegible] town by a brilliant charge of cavalry. [illegible] accordingly divided his forces into two [illegible] charged upon the vacated streets, and reached the centre [sic] of the town without [illegible] man. This brilliant achievement [illegible] soon after entering Pennsylvania seemed to encourage the gallant guerilla chief [illegible] more daring deeds, and he immediately [illegible] to empty stables and capture every article within his reach that seemed [illegible] fancy of his men. He announced [illegible] for ears polite that he had come [illegible] burn and destroy, and that he would be at Greencastle. Maj. Rowe informed [illegible] that he could burn Greencastle, but that would end his depredations and his [illegible] at about that point. Jenkins [illegible] as he blustered, and Jenkins didn't [illegible] destroy. He probably forgot to apply the torch. Generous teaching of memor[illegible].
Jenkins [illegible] Upon Chambersburg
The rebels [illegible] evidently under the impression that [illegible] would be thrown in their way at an [illegible] they pushed forward for Chambersburg. About 11 o'clock on Monday [illegible] they arrived at the Southern end of the [illegible] the same intensely strategic movement exhibited at Greencastle were displayed [illegible] Several were thrown forward [illegible] to reconnoitre, [sic] and a few of our brave [illegible] captured them and took their horses. [illegible] taste of war whetted the appetite of Jenkins and he resolved to capture the town [illegible] brilliant dash, without so much as a demand for surrender. He divided his forced into [illegible] columns--about two hundred in [illegible] as a forlorn hope, to whom was assigned the desperate task of charging upon empty and undefended streets, store-[illegible] beds &c. of the ancient village of Chambersburg. Every precaution, that [illegible] could invent was taken to prevent [illegible]. Men were detailed to ride along the [illegible] before the charge [illegible] to plant artillery [illegible] the redoubtable Jenkins had not so much as a swivel in his army. The women and children having been sufficiently frightened by the threatened booming of artillery, and all things being in [illegible], the forlorn hope advanced, and the most desperate charge ever known in the history of war--in Chambersburg at last--was made. Down the street came the iron clatter of hoofs like the tempest with a thousand thunderbolts; but the great plan had failed [illegible] one particular, and the column recoiled before it reached the Diamond. A mortar [illegible] on the street, in front to Mr. White's [illegible] building, had not been observed in the reconnoitering of the town, nor had willing Copperheads advised him of it. His force [illegible] hurled against it; down went some men [illegible] bang went a gun. To strike a mortar-bed [illegible] have a gun fired at the same time, was more than the strategy of Jenkins had bargained for; and the charge was broken and fell back. A few moments of fearful suspense, and the mortar-bed was carefully reconnoitered, [illegible] the musket report was found to be an accidental discharge of a gun in the hands of one of his own men who had fallen. With boldness and dash worthy of Jenkins, it was resolved to renew the attack without even the formality of a council of war. Again [illegible] steeds of war thundered down the street and, there being nothing in the way, over [illegible] all opposition, and the borough of Chambersburg was under the rule of Jenkins. Having won it by the most determined and brilliant prowess, Jenkins resolved that he would be magnanimous, and would allow nothing to be taken from our people--excepting such article as he and his men wanted.
Jenkins Encamps With the Editor
Jenkins had doubtless [illegible] the papers in his day, and knew that there were green fields in the "Green Spot" and what is rather remarkable, at night he could start for a forty acre clover patch belonging to the Editor of the Repository without so much as stopping to ask where the gate might be found. Not even a [illegible] called to find it; but the march was continued until the gate was reached, when the order "file right" was given, and Jenkins was in clover. Happy fellow thus to find [illegible] and extensive clover as if by [illegible]. By way of giving the devil his due, it [illegible] be said that, although there were over sixty acres of wheat, and eighty acres of [illegible] and oats in the same field, he protected [illegible] most carefully and picketed his horses so [illegible] it could not be injured. And equal care [illegible] taken of all other property about the [illegible], excepting half-a-dozen of our fattest [illegible] sheep which were necessary, it seems, to furnish chops, &c. for his men. [illegible] fences were wantonly destroyed, poultry [illegible] was not disturbed, nor did he compliment our blooded cattle so much as to test the quality of their steak and roasts. Some of his men cast a wistful eye upon the gleaming trout in the spring; but they were protected by voluntary order, and save a few quarts of delicious strawberries gathered with every care, after first asking permission, nothing in the garden, or about the grounds was taken. Having had a taste of rebel love for horses last October, when Gen. Stuart's officers first stole our horses, and then supped and smoked socially with us, we had started to the mountains slightly in advance of Jenkins' occupation of the town, and, being unable to find them, we are happy to say that Gen. Jenkins didn't steal our new assortment.
Jenkins and Staff Are Sociable.
However earnest an enemy Jenkins may be, he don't seem to keep spite, but is capable of being very jolly and sociable when he is treated hospitably. For prudential reasons, the Editor was not at home to do the honors at his own table; but Jenkins was not particular, nor was his appetite impaired thereby. He called upon the ladies of the house, shared their hospitality, behaved in all respects like a gentleman, and expressed very earnest regrets that he had not been able to make the personal acquaintance of the Editor [illegible] beg to say that we reciprocate the wish of the General and shall be glad to make his acquaintance personally --"when this cruel war is over." Col. French and Surgeon Bee spent much of their time with Mrs. McClure, and the former showed his appreciation of her hospitality by taking her revolver from her when he left. An order having been made for the citizens to surrender all the guns and pistols they had, Col. French took the pistol of his hostess. How many rifles he didn't get that were in her keeping, we "da'na choose to tell."
Jenkins Buys Out the Town
Horses seemed to be considered contraband of war and were taken without the pretence [sic] of compensation; but other articles were deemed legitimate subject of commerce even between enemies, and they were generally paid for after a fashion. True, the system of Jenkins would be considered a little informal in business circles; but it's his way, and our people agreed to it perhaps to some extent because of the novelty, but mainly because of the necessity of the thing. But Jenkins was liberal--eminently liberal. He didn't stoop to haggle about a few odd pennies in making a bargain. For instance, he took the drugs of Messrs. Miller, Spangler, Nixon and Heyser, and told them to make out a bill, or if they could not do that, to guess at the amount, and the bills were paid. Doubtless our merchants and druggists would have preferred "green-backs" to confederate scrip that is never payable, and is worth just its weight in old paper; but Jenkins hadn't "green-backs" and he had confederate scrip, and such as he had he gave unto them. Thus he dealt largely in our place. To avoid the jealousies growing out of rivalry in business, he patronised [sic] all the merchants, and bought pretty much everything he could conveniently use and carry. Some people, with the antiquated ideas of business, might call it stealing to take goods and pay for them in bogus money; but Jenkins calls it business, and for the time being what Jenkins called business, was business. In this way he robbed all the stores; drug stores, &c., more or less, and supplied himself with many articles of great value to him.
Jenkins Regulates the City Fathers.
Jenkins, like most doctors, don't seem to have relished his own prescriptions. Several horses had been captured by some of our boys, and notice was given by the general commanding that they must be surrendered or the town would be destroyed. The city fathers, commonly known as the town council, were appealed to in order to avert the impending fate threatened us. One of the horses, we believe, and some of the equipments were found and returned, but there was still a balance in favor of Jenkins. We do not know who audited the account, but it was finally adjusted by the council appropriating the sum of $900 to pay the claim. Doubtless Jenkins hoped for $900 dollars in "greenbacks," but he had flooded the town with confederate scrip, pronouncing it better than United States currency, and the council evidently believed him, and desiring to be accommodating with a conqueror, decided to favor him by the payment of his [illegible] confederate scrip. It was so done, and Jenkins got just $900 worth of nothing for his trouble. He took it, however, without a murmur, and doubtless considered it a clever joke.
Jenkins Calls for Arms.
Sore was the disappointment of Jenkins at the general exodus of horses from this place. It limited his booty immensely. Fully five hundred had been taken from Chambersburg and vicinity to the mountains, and Jenkins plunder was thus made just so much less. But he determined to make up for it by stealing all the arms in the town. He therefore issued an order requiring the citizens to bring him all the arms they had, public or private, within two hours; and search, and terrible vengeance were threatened in case of disobedience. Many of our citizens complied with the order, and a committee of our people was appointed to take a list of the persons presenting arms. Of course very many did not comply, but enough did so to avoid a general search and probable sacking of the town. The arms were assorted--the indifferent destroyed, and the good taken along.
Jenkins Takes a Fright.
On Tuesday a few of Milroy's cavalry, [illegible] Martinsburg, were seen by the redoubtable Jenkins hovering in his front. Although thirteen in number, and without the appetite for a battle with his two thousand men, he took on a fright of huge proportions and prepared to sell his command [illegible] early as possible. Like a prudent general, however, he provided fully for his retreat. [illegible] shrill blast of the bugle brought his men [illegible] arms with the utmost possible alacrity; [illegible] were called in to swell the ranks [illegible] horses and baggage, consisting principally of stolen goods, were sent to the rear, [illegible] of the town; the surgeon took forcible possession of all our building, houses, barns sheds, &c., to be used as hospitals, and officially requested that their wounded should be humanely treated in case of their sudden retreat without being able to take them along. The hero of two brilliant cavalry charges upon undefended towns, was agitated beyond endurance at the prospect of a battle; [illegible line] than the State Capital, over fifty miles distant, and there the same scene [illegible] being presented. Jenkins in Chambersburg and the militia at Harrisburg, [illegible] momentarily expecting to be cut to pieces by the other. But these armies, alike [illegible] in their heroism, were spared the dead [illegible] of arms, inasmuch as even the most [illegible] ordnance is not deemed fatal at [illegible] fitfy [sic] miles. Both armies, as the [illegible] reports go, "having accomplished [illegible] purpose, retired in good order."
[illegible] Houses Plundered.
As a [illegible] believe that private houses were not [illegible] by Jenkins' forces; but there were some exceptions. The residences of Messrs. [illegible] and Gipe, near Chambersburg, [illegible] entered (the families being absent) [illegible] plundered of clothing, kettles, and other [illegible]. Bureaus and cupboards were all emptied of their contents, and such articles as they wanted were taken. We have not [illegible] of any instances of the kind in town.
Rebels Snub the Copperheads.
A very [illegible] of our citizens exhibited the craven [illegible] the genuine Copperhead; but Jenkins and his men, in no instance, treated them with [illegible] courtesy. That they made use of some such creatures to obtain information can [illegible] be doubted; but they spurned all attempts [illegible] claim their respect because of professed [illegible] with their cause. To one who [illegible] to make fair weather with Jenkins [illegible] professions of sympathy with the [illegible], he answered--"Well, if you believe we are right, take your gun and join our ranks!" It is needless to say that the cowardly [illegible] did not obey. To another he said-- "[illegible] we had such men as you in the South, we would hang them!" They say, on all occasions, that there are but two modes of peace--disunion or subjugation--and they stoutly deny that the latter is possible. Lieut. Reilly had [illegible] returned from West Point the day the rebels reached here, and of his presence and [illegible] they were minutely advised, for [illegible] called at the house and compelled his sister to go with them into every room to search for him. Gen. Jenkins also had the fullest information of the movements of the Editor of this paper. He told at our own house, [illegible] had left, the direction we had gone, [illegible] described the horse we rode, and added that there were people in Chambersburg sufficiently cowardly and treacherous to give such information of their neighbors. When it was suggested that such people should be sent within the rebel lines, he insisted that the South should not be made a Botany Bay for Northern scoundrels.
Negroes Taken South.
Quite a number of Negroes, free and slave--men, women and children--were captured by Jenkins and started South to be sold into bondage. Many escaped in various ways, and the people of Greencastle captured the guard of one negro [illegible] in and discharged the negroes; but, perhaps a full fifty were got off to slavery. One negro effected his escape by shooting and seriously wounding his rebel guard. He forced the gun from the rebel and fired, wounding [illegible] in the head, and then skedaddled. Some of the men were bound with ropes, and the children were mounted in front or behind the rebels on their horses. By great exertions of several citizens some of the negroes were discharged.
The Southern Border Plundered.
The southern border of this county has been literally plundered of everything in the stock line, excepting such as could be secreted. But it was difficult to secrete stock, as the rebels spent a full week in the county, and leisurely hunted out horses and cattle without molestation. The citizens were unable to protect themselves, and owing to the [illegible] of promptness of [illegible] citizens elsewhere [illegible] respond to the call for troops, aid could [illegible] be had. We have [illegible] sufficient data to estimate the loss sustained by the county; but it cannot fall short of a quarter of a million of dollars. It is a fearful blow to our people, coming as it does in the throngest [sic] season of the year, and many croppers, who had little else than their stock, have been rendered almost if not entirely bankrupt by the raid. If the people of Pennsylvania will not fight to protect the State from invasion, the sufferers have a right to claim compensation from the common treasury of the State. The State professes to protect its citizens in the enjoyment of all their rights, and there is no justice in withholding the common tribute from individual sufferers. Among the many unfortunate, perhaps the greatest sufferer, is ex-Sheriff Taylor, from whom the rebels captured a drove of fat cattle in Fulton county. His loss is some $7,000.
The route of Jenkins was through the most densely populated and wealthiest portion of the county. From this point he fell back to Greencastle and south of it, thence he proceeded to Mercersburg, from where a detachment crossed the Cove Mountain to McConnellsburg and struck down the valley from there. The main body however was divided into plundering parties, and scoured the whole southern portion of the county, spending several days in and about Greencastle and Waynesboro, and giving Welsh Run a pretty intimate visitation.
The rebels seemed omnipresent according to reports. They were on several occasions since their departure from this place just about to re-enter it, and the panic-stricken made a corresponding exit at the other side. On Thursday the 18th, they were reported within two miles of here, in large force, and a general skedaddle took place; and again on Sunday, the 21st, they were reported coming with reinforcements. A few ran off, but most of our people, knowing that there was a military force to fall back upon between this and Scotland, shouldered their guns and fell into ranks to give battle.--Prominent among these were noticed Rev. Mr. Niccolls, whose people missed a sermon in his determination to pop a few rebels.
Scotland Bridge Burned.
One of the first acts done by the rebels here was to march down to the railroad bridge at Scotland and burn it. The warehouse of Mr. Criswell and several cars, were spared upon satisfactory assurance that they were private property. As soon as the rebels fell back, the Railroad Company commenced to rebuild the bridge, and on Sunday evening the 21st, trains passed over it again. The only other instance of firing property that has reached us, was the warehouse of Oaks & Linn. It was fired just as they left the town, but the citizens extinguished it.
We had not the felicity of a personal interview with the distinguised [sic] guerrilla chief but our special reporters took his dimensions and autobiography with general accuracy. He was born of his mother at a very early age, and is supposed to be the son of his father. He was flogged through school in his boyhood years much as other children and may have startling traditions touching his early character, such as the hatchet and cherry tree which proved that Washington could not lie; but it is for the present regarded as doubtful. He subsequently graduated at Jefferson College in this State, in the same class, we believe, with J. McDowell Sharpe, Esq., and gave promise of future usefulness and greatness. His downward career commenced some five years ago, when in an evil hour he became a member of Congress from Western Virginia, and from thence may be dated his decline and fall. From Congress he naturally enough turned fire- eater, secessionist and guerrilla. He is of medium size, has a flat but good head, light brown hair, blue eyes, immense flowing beard of a sandy hue, and rather a pleasant face. He professes to cherish the utmost regard for the humanity of war, and seemed sensitive on the subject of his reputation as a humane military leader. He pointed to the raids of the Union troops, who left in many instances wide-spread and total desolation on their tracks, and expressed the hope that henceforth the Union raids would do no more damage to citizens than he does. He takes horses, cattle and articles necessary for the army, as both sides treat them as contraband of war, and help themselves on every occasion offered. He pointed with bitter triumph at the raid of Montgomery in South Carolina, and at the destruction of Jacksonville, Fla. and Jackson, Mississippi, by our troops, and reminded us that his actions were in accordance with civilized warfare, while those referred to of our troops were barbarous.
We do not learn of any one who was able to count Jenkins' forces accurately, but from the best information we can gather, he had about two thousand men. They were clad, as rebel soldiers usually are, in the southern butter-nut cloth, and without any regard to uniformity. They caried [sic] pistols, rifles and sabres, and are classed as mounted infantry, or independent guerillas, although they are recognized as part of the rebel army. We believe that the plunder became their own private property, instead of the property of the rebel authorities, as is the case with their regular troops. They have thus a double incentive to plunder.
Delay in Arming.
We have heard much complaint of our people for not rushing to arms and driving the invaders away. It must be remembers that the entire southern half of our county, embracing two-thirds of our population, was occupied by the rebels, who had heavy supporting columns at Williamsport. Every man of ours was threatened hourly at his own door, and concentration was impossible. Our people generally did their duty, but they were required in their respective neighborhoods to picket and protect, in some degree, their stock. A concentration of our men at Chambersburg, or Greencastle, or Mercersburg, would have left 25,000 people with their property entirely defenceless. In the Valley the citizens were under arms, and had the roads barricaded for defence, but the Southern portion of the county is open and unsuitable to defence by small parties.
Arrival of New York Troops.
On Sunday, 28th, the 8th New York Militia arrived here, having marched from Shippensburg, and they were received with the wildest enthusiasm. Considering that they are on our border in advance of any Pennsylvania regiments, they merit, as they will receive, the lasting gratitude of every man in the Border.
The Venerable Greys.
The old men of the town organized a company, headed by Hon. George Chambers, for the defence of the town. None were admitted under forty-five. On Monday every man capable of bearing arms had his gun and was in some organization to resist the rebels.
(Column 6)Summary: The Repository reports general news about conventions and nominations, including the nomination of the banished traitor Vallandigham for governor in Ohio.
Description of Page: The page includes anecdotes.
Address By Rev. Samuel J. Niccolls
(Column 1)Summary: In his speech, Rev. Niccolls honors the regiment, not for their participation in recent battles and slaughter, but for their sacrifices in defending their country. He expresses gratitude that so many of the soldiers came back alive. This joy is mingled with grief for those who did not return. Niccolls hopes that the state will some day soon be unified and at peace again.
Editorial Comment: "Delivered at Chambersburg, May 28d, 1863, before the 126th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers."Rebel Account Of Vallandigham's Reception
(Column 3)Summary: The Repository reprints a rebel description of their reception of Mr. Vallandigham, banished from his state of Ohio for his opposition to the war. The author expresses the hope that one day Vallandigham will be elected Ohio's governor.
Origin of Article: Chattanooga Rebel of May 27The Income Tax
(Column 4)Summary: Details an important decision by the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue, including the definition of residence, income, losses, and deductions.Soldier Wives
(Column 6)Summary: Fanny Fern reminds readers of the heroism of soldiers' wives and the hardships they face.
Trailer: Fanny FernA Southern Boast
(Column 6)Summary: The Nashville Union mocks the Richmond Whig's boast of the abilities of Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson.
Origin of Article: Nashville Union
Description of Page: The page includes articles on Tread Power, making quality butter, precautions against the weather, and good haymaking.
A Word To Farmers
(Column 1)Summary: The author urges farmers to exchange advice on agricultural improvement through the press, thus bringing "incalculable advantages" to the entire community.
The Franklin Repository
(Column 1)Summary: Alex K. McClure and Henry S. Stoner are the new editors and proprietors of the Franklin Repository. The article provides descriptions of the paper and its news contacts. The Franklin Repository asserts its dedication to the "positive and unconditional re-union of the States" and its support of the administrations of President Abraham Lincoln and Governor Curtin.
(Names in announcement: Alex K. McClure, Henry S. Stoner)Full Text of Article:The Victory At Gettysburg
The Franklin Repository will henceforth be issued by Alex K. McClure and Henry S. Stoner as Editor and Proprietors. It has been enlarged to its old form of Forty-Eight Columns,--its size thus increased fully one-third, and the paper appears in entirely new and beautiful type. The old terms of Two Dollars per annum in advance, or two dollars and a-half if not paid within the year, have been adopted, from necessity, as no paper of the size of the Repository can possibly be published for less. Indeed, but for the hope that printing paper must in a reasonable time become cheaper than now, we could not venture on the experiment of attempting a first-class local paper at the low rate of two dollars per annum.
Able assistance has been secured in the Editorial department, and the Local Items of the county will be given in the fullest possible manner. Able and reliable correspondents have been secured at Washington, Harrisburg and the Eastern cities, and the latest news by Telegraph will be given in each issue down to the date of publication. A full and reliable weekly review of the Markets will always be found in the Repository, and the very latest sales of Flour, Grain &c., will be furnished every Tuesday evening by Telegraph. Local correspondents in different sections of the county have been engaged, who will regularly report the condition of the Crops, and all items of general interest. In short, we hope to make the Franklin Repository the most complete Local, General, and Political journal in the State out of the leading cities. If in this we succeed, and thus merit the patronage of the people of Franklin county, we feel assured that we shall not appeal in vain for their generous support.
Politically, the Franklin Repository will, during the war, have but one article of faith--the positive and unconditional re-union of the States under the regularly constituted authorities of the Government.. It will resist alike Disunion and cowardly Compromise with armed treason, as disaster to the living--as dishonor to our heroic dead. It will give a cordial and earnest support to the administrations of President Lincoln and Governor Curtin, and will demand that every possible means within the reach or power of the government, be employed to secure the unity and lasting Peace of the Republic.
(Column 1)Summary: The Repository provides a brief and general description of the battle at Gettysburg, and especially discusses the retreat of the rebels. The author praises General Meade, who had received the command only three days before the battle.
Full Text of Article:[No Title]
At length the two great opposing armies have met in an open field with the firm resolve to conquer or be destroyed, and the God of battles has given victory to the Union arms.
It was no drawn struggle--no doubtful triumph. After three days of the most deadly strife, marked by a heroism on both sides before which Roman story pales, the rebel columns reeled back upon their mountain base defeated, routed, decimated, without heart or hope.
Under cover of the night their shattered legions commenced their retreat, hugging the mountains closely for protection, and leaving their thousands of dead to find hospitable graves at the hands of their foe, while other thousands of wounded were left to the humanity of those by whose hands they had fallen. The pathway to their home of desolation and want was marked by the pale and lifeless monuments of their disaster, deserted their ranks and come as suppliants to our doors.
Scarcely half the insurgent army is in battle array to-day. Its sullen steps were turned upon the Potomac only to find that the very elements have risen in terrible vengeance against them. Hopeless and dispirited they find the waters dividing them from safety, defy their retreat and the battle of despair must be fought ere repose can be found from the shock of the discomfiture at Gettysburg.
Their long broken lines filed through Hagerstown toward Williamsport yesterday, and as the Potomac is impassable, the historic ground of Antietam will doubtless be chosen again by the rebel leader for the last desperate effort for existence. It was there that he learned the bitter lesson of the madness of invasion nearly one years ago, when a defeated, disorganized army assailed and dislodged him. Now the Army of the Potomac marches upon him with the victory of Gettysburg streaming on their banners, and their hearts strengthened by the triumph of the Right, and they will strike with resistless fury upon the invading foe.
Mingled with the joy of every loyal heart at this great triumph, will be the deepest sorrow for our fallen heroes. To protect our homes and to preserve our Nationality fifteen thousand of our bravest troops have fallen. They will be mourned as the Republic's noblest sons, and green will be the chaplets woven for them in the memory of every friend of order and government.
To Gen. Meade was assigned the cruel task of meeting an invading foe within three days after the command was assigned him. That he did it wisely, heroically, triumphantly, stamps him to- day as the "Great Defender of the Republic!"
(Column 1)Summary: The Democratic State Convention met on June 17 and nominated Hon. George W. Woodward for Governor, and Hon. Walter H. Lowrie for Supreme Judge. The author complains that the Convention made no mention of defending Pennsylvania from the occupying rebels.[No Title]
(Column 2)Summary: The Repository expresses gratitude to New York's 8th and 71st regiments, which helped in the battle in Pennsylvania, and New York's 7th, which bolstered forces in Baltimore.[No Title]
(Column 2)Summary: Reports that pages 2, 3, 6, and 7 were printed three weeks ago, but publication was suspended for two weeks due to the occupation by the rebels of Chambersburg.(No Title)
(Column 2)Summary: Explains that the Dispatch and Repository have merged into a single paper, and that Dispatch subscribers will now receive the Repository.
Full Text of Article:A Great Victory!
The material and subscription list of the Dispatch have been united with this office, and the subscribers to that journal will henceforth be furnished with the Repository. We believe that the arrangement will be acceptable to the readers, as it must be advantageous to all parties interested, and the public generally. Persons who have paid their subscription in advance to the Dispatch, will receive this paper without additional charge for the full period for which they have paid. Many of the readers of the Dispatch will doubless [sic] miss its sprightly little face, but with the increased facilities afforded by the union of the two papers, we hope to meet [illegible]
(Column 3)Summary: Details the battle at Gettysburg, including dispatches from Gen. Meade. The accounts include Gen. Lee's attempt to call a temporary truce to bury the dead and exchange prisoners, and also praise for the brave (and wounded) Gen. Hancock.
Full Text of Article:
Three Days Battles
Terrific and Unparalleled Conflict.
The Rebels Utterly Routed!!
They Retreat to the Mountain.
The Culminating Battle on Friday.
Official Dispatches from Gen. Meade.
The Rebels Repulsed in Every Attack!
The President Congratulates the Country.
Splendid Conduct of our Army.
The Rebel Gen. Armistread Captured.
Gen. Sickles' Leg Amputated on the Field.
Some of the Results of the Great Victory.
The Rebel Pontoon Bridges at Williamsport Destroyed.
Rise of the Potomac River.
Headquarters, Third Army Corps,
Near Gettysburg, July 4, 1863.
The battle of Friday was the most desperate, most fierce and decisive of the war. It was commenced at early daybreak on our extreme left by a determined attack by the enemy with musketry and artillery. The attack was met by the Sixth Corps and portions of the First and the Fifth, the Third lying close at hand in reserve. The battle raged fiercely at this point for nearly three hours, when the enemy fell back, yielding to us the whole of the battle field of that morning, as well as of the previous day.
Nearly simultaneously with the opening of the attack on the left, movements were discovered on the right indicating that an effort was making to flank our position in that direction. Our artillery on Cemetery Hill at once opened, throwing heavy vollies of shell over and to the right and east of the town. At this point we had eight or ten batteries in position, covered by earthworks. The enemy responded briskly to our cannonading, but with poor effect, and were evidently much annoyed by our fire. They, however, pressed their columns on to the right, and very soon our infantry poured on that flank and were earnestly engaged. The contest here was even more earnest and continuous than on the left. The Twelfth and portions of the Eleventh Corps withstood the shock, giving never an inch of ground to their assailants.
The fight raged here on the face of a lofty mountain, densely wooded, from the summit of which batteries could command our position on Cemetery Hill. It was evidently with a view of gaining this position that the enemy made the assault. For this purpose Hill's Corps, that had fought on the left on the previous day, was brought around to reinforce Early, and as the scheme was developed it appeared that the early attack on the left was intended merely as a diversion to cover this movement. From a distance the progress of the fight could be observed by the whirling smoke rising above the woods, marking the line of the fierce contest.
In this struggle our reserved artillery was brought into play, and did most excellent service from impromptu positions on the elevated points back of Cemetery Hill shelling the face of the mountain where the enemy were supposed to be. This reserve fire of shell, added to the steady and unflinching ardor of the glorious Twelfth corps, ultimately checked the vastly superior force of the enemy, who for an hour or two had been gradually advancing. At the critical juncture, about eleven o'clock in the forenoon, one or two brigades of New York troops, supposed to be militia from Pennsylvania, arrived, and were immediately thrown into position to reinforce the right wing, which was being so badly pressed. This assistance determined the fate of the day. The enemy quailed before it, and soon the curling smoke that marked the line of the contest began to recede, surely indicating that the enemy were falling back; but if they gave away at all it was but slowly fighting at every step; and thus the battle raged for hours, and until afternoon, when the enemy abandoned the field in that direction. But they did not yet yield the day. For a period hostilities seemed to be suspended; but the suspension was very brief.
The rebel columns seemed to be massed as if by magic, and within an hour their whole force was massed directly in our front, and once more the fierce and deadly contest opened. This time it was an assault along the entire line--a last resort, the forlorn hope of the enemy. They were weakened in numbers and dispirited and utterly demoralized; yet Lee had a reputation to save and a name to make, and at any sacrifice of life he seemed bound to win the day; but he strove in vain. The Union troops were fighting at home and among their own people. They fought like heroes, and, inspirited by success, they had no thought of defeat. They could have withstood three times the force the enemy hurled against them. It was mere play for them to drive back the columns of the rebels, and so they did drive them back, and at five o'clock, after more than twelve hours constant fighting, the contest terminated, the national troops victorious at every point, and having nearly the entire battle field in their possession.
Time fails me to dwell upon the details of this brilliant and glorious battle. It would be interesting to say how we took thousands on thousands of prisoners, how the enemy were slaughtered, how our men fell by thousands, heroically defending their national emblem; but let [illegible] this be deferred: the day is ours, the victory is won, the country is saved.
At the close of the action General Lee had the impudence to send in a flag of truce asking a suspension of hostilities, to give him time for the burial of the dead and an exchange of prisoners. General Meade replied that he intended to recapture all the prisoners the enemy had taken and that he would bury their dead for them. Failing in this attempt to gain time, and badly worsted at all hands, the rebels had no other recourse but to avail themselves of the fast approaching night to fall back to the mountains. So precipitate was their retreat last night that their guards and sentinels in town were not relieved, and were captured.
This morning upward of eleven hundred stragglers were taken in Gettysburg, besides our wounded who had fallen into the enemy's hands on Wednesday. At early daybreak General Pleasant was started in pursuit of the rebels with his artillery, and at last accounts was pressing them hard.
The summary of this battle it would be difficult to give at this time. Both sides have lost heavily. The country about Gettysburg is crowded with wounded men. Every house and barn is a hospital. Probably in the aggregate of both armies at least 50,000 men have been placed hors de combat. The apportionment of this loss would probably be twenty thousand Union and thirty thousand rebels. In addition to this, we have captured from twelve to twenty thousand prisoners, which is more than quadruple what they have taken from us, including our wounded who fell into their hands on Wednesday, and who were recaptured by us in Gettysburg this morning.
It is exceedingly doubtful if we have taken either Longstreet or Hill, as reported, though the report is based upon statements of rebel prisoners. Other reports say that Longstreet is badly wounded and some say that he is dead.
The Opening Fight.
First Army Corps,
Gettysburg, Pa., July 1--12 p.m.
We left camp this morning for this place, and before we reached the heights overlooking the town we heard the guns which told us that Buford's cavalry and howitzers were skirmishing with the enemy's advance, about three miles to the westward of the town. Our information is, that the enemy is there in force, with the prospect of a sharp engagement, if not a decisive battle.
Communication Cut Off.
I came directly into town, hoping to be able to despatch letters or messages, but learn that a few days since the railway was torn up and bridges burned by the rebels, and the telegraph poles cut down for some miles. If no mails leave to-day we shall be obliged to send couriers to the nearest telegraph station.
The First and Eleventh corps have got into position and the firing has ceased for the moment.
Headquarters, July l--1 P.M.
The First Corps Engaged.
I have just returned from the front. There has been some of the most gallant fighting by our boys ever known to warriors. Gen. Jas. S. Wadsworth's division, the [illegible] of the First corps, was the first engaged, and Sol. Meredith's old "iron" brigade was the first to get into action. The boys walked into the fight just as they would into a harvest field, and mowed down the enemy like grass.
Capture of Archer's Brigade--Death of Reynolds.
They have captured the famous Light Brigade of the rebel army, commanded by Gen. Archer, a native of Maryland, who is also a prisoner, but they have lost their favorite commander. Major General John F. Reynolds, who was killed at the commencement of the action. As you will get all the particulars of his death and career by telegraph, I will not elaborate upon them here more than to say that his troops had every confidence in him and will revere his loss.
Headquarters, July 1--6 PM
The Rebels Again Attack Us--The First Fully Engaged.
In the brilliant little action mentioned in my previous letter, our troops were victorious, having driven the enemy from their position. They were resting on their arms when about two o'clock the enemy, A. P. Hill's corps, having been reinforced by portion of Ewell's (formerly Stonewall Jackson's) corps made an attack on our lines. The whole of the First corps was now fiercely engaged. General Robinson, commanding the Second division and Gen. Rowley the Third. The enemy massed his whole force first upon our right, then upon centre, and lastly upon our left, and the iron hail and missiles fell upon us in unparalleled fury. Our boys never winced or flinched. It seems that the veterans of the First corps consider fighting one of their regular exercises.
The First Corps Falls Back.
After two hours of unprecedented fighting against a force of four times our numbers, and terrible losses, we were obliged to fall back upon the town, and through it to the heights, on the southern and eastern side, leaving our dead on the field and our wounded, both there and in the town hospitals, who were unable to walk, in the hands of the enemy. Our ambulance train was not yet up.
Position and Plan of the Battle.
The battle of Gettsburg! [sic] I am told that it commenced on the first of July, a mile north of the town, between two weak brigades of infantry and some doomed artillery, and the whole force of the rebel army. Among other costs of this error was the death of Reynolds. Its value was priceless, however, though priceless was the young and the old blood with which it was bought. The error put us upon the defensive, and gave us the choice of position, from the moment that our artillery and infantry rolled back through the main street of Gettysburg and rolled out of the town to the circle of eminences south of it. We were not to attack but to be attacked. The risks, the difficulties and the disadvantages of the coming battle were the enemy's. Ours were the heights for artillery; ours the short, inside lines for manoeuvering [sic] and reinforcing; ours the cover of stonewalls, fences, and the crests of hills. The ground upon which we were driven to accept battle was wonderfully favorable to us. A proper description of it would be to say that it was in form an elongated and somewhat sharpened horseshoe, with the toe to Gettysburg and the heel to the south.
Lee's plan of battle was simple. He massed his troops upon the east side of this shoe of position, and thundered on it obstinately to break it. The shelling of our batteries from the nearest overlooking hill, and the unflinching courage and complete discipline of the Army of the Potomac repelled the attack. It was renewed at the point of the shoe--renewed desperately at the southwest heel--renewed on the western side, with an effort consecrated to success by Ewell's earnest oaths, and on which the fate of the invasion of Pennsylvania was fully put at stake. Only a perfect infantry, and an artillery educated in the [illegible] of charges of hostile brigades, could possibly have sustained this assault. Hancock's corps did sustain it, and has covered itself with immortal honors, by its constancy and courage. The total wreck of Cushing's battery--the list of its killed and wounded--the losses of officers, men and horses Cowen sustained, and the marvellous [sic] outspread upon the board of death, of dead soldiers and dead animals--of dead soldiers in blue, and dead soldiers in gray--more marvellous to me than anything I have ever seen in war--are a ghastly and shocking testimony to the terrible fight of the 2d Corps, that none will gainsay. That corps will ever have the distinction of breaking the pride and power of the rebel invasion.
The Rebel Charge.
Then were was a lull and we knew that the rebel infantry was charging. And splendidly they did this [illegible]--the highest and severest test of the stuff that soldiers are made of. Hill's division in line of battle, came first, on the double-quick, their muskets [illegible] the "right- shoulder-shift." Longstreet's came as the support, at the usual distance, with war cries and a savage insolence as yet untutored by defeat. They rushed in perfect order across the open field, up to the very muzzles of the guns, which tore lanes through them as they came. But they met men, who were their equals in spirit, and their superiors in tenacity. There never was better fighting since Thermopylae than was done yesterday by our infantry and artillery. The rebels were over our defences. They had cleaned cannononiers and horses from one of the guns, and were whirling it around to use upon us. The bayonet drove them back. But so hard pressed was this brave infantry that at one time, from the exhaustion of their ammunition, every battery upon the principal crest of stock was silent, except Cowen's. His service of grape and canister was awful. It enabled our line, outnumbered two to one, first to beat back Longstreet, and then to charge upon him, and take a great number of his men and himself prisoners. Strange sight! So terrible was our musketry and artillery fire, that when Armstead's brigade was chocked [sic] in its charge, and stood reeling, all of its men dropped their muskets, and crawled on their hands and knees underneath the stream of shot, till close to our troops, where they made signs of surrendering. They passed through our ranks scarcely noticed and slowly went down the slope to the road in the rear.
Spirit of the Battle.
[From Correspondence of the World.]
The artillery fire continued without intermission for three hours, when suddenly, having formed under cover of the smoke of their own guns, the rebel troops were hurled against our lines by the officers in masses, the very tread of whose feet shook the declivity up which they [illegible], with cries that might have caused less dauntless troops than those who awaited the [illegible] to break with terror. Not a man in the Federal ranks flinched from his position. Not an eye turned to the right or left in search of security, not a hand trembled as the long array of our heroes grasped their muskets at a charge, and waited the order to fire. On and up came the enemy, hooting, [illegible] showing their very teeth in the venom of their rage, until within thirty yards of our cannon. As the turbulent mass of gray uniforms, of flashing bayonets and gleaming eyes, lifted itself in a last lap forward almost to the mouths of our guns, a volley of shot, shell, shrapnel and bullets went crashing through it, leaving it as a scythe. Its overwhelming onward rush was in the next instant turned to the hesitating leap forward of a few soldiers more daredevil than the rest, the wild bounding upwards of more than a few mortally wounded heroes, and the succeeding backward surge of the disjointed remainder, which culminated in a scamper down the slope that was, in some instances, retarded by the pursuing bullets of our men.
The carnage of the assault among the rebels was so fearful that even Federal soldiers who rested on their arms triumphant, after the foe had retreated beyond their fire, as they case their eyes downward upon the panorama of death and wounds illuminated by the sun that shone upon the slope before them, were seen to shudder and turn sickening away.
Then the 3rd and 5th Corps joined in the fight. As the rebels rallied for an instant, and attempted to make a stand, they were met by such combined volleys as threatened to reduce their columns to fragments. The panic which ensued is unparalleled in any battle in which the Army of the Potomac has ever been engaged. The enemy quailed like ewes before a tempest. Their main line again receded, but numbers, palsied by the horror and tumult, fell upon their faces, shrieking and lifting up clasped hands in token of surrender and appeals for mercy. General Dick Garnett's brigade surrendered almost entire, but Garnett himself, by the aid of two of his men, succeeded, though wounded, in making his escape. Longstreet, who led the reinforcements which enabled the rebels to make their second brief stand, was wounded, captured and is now prisoner. The musketry firing slowly ceased and the discharge of artillery continued for a brief period, but even these reverberations died away.
General Mead was not deceived in anticipating another onslaught. Lee's columns were collected and reformed with magical haste. With an hour what seemed to be his whole force was again amassed directly in our front, where the contest once more opened. The assault this time was made with a fury even surpassing that of the first. It would seem as if the entire rebel army had resolved itself to a gigantic forlorn hope, and bore in its collective bosom the consciousness that the effort now made was the last and only one that could be made toward retrieving the fortunes of that army, or preventing the inevitable disgrace which hovered over it.
It is said by rebel prisoners taken in the later part of the engagement that this charge was led by Lee in person. The prestige of his name and his presence could certainly not have added to its power or enthusiasm. Yet the cool and gallant phalanx which, secure in its position and confident in its leader, waited with a silence only broken by the occasional roar of artillery the approach of the foe, and view [illegible] it as calmly and met it as unfalteringly [illegible] before. Back, as easily as a girl hurls the shuttlecock, did the solders of our gallant army hurl into chaotic retreat the hosts that came on and on, over the stones and ditches, over the bodies of fallen comrades, piling its dead in heaps and making the soil over which it trod ghastly and alive with struggling wounded.
The Field After the Battle.
[From the Correspondence of the Times.]
Rebel officers with whom I have conversed frankly admit that the result of the last two days has been most disastrous to their cause, which depended, they say, upon the success of Lee's attempt to transfer the seat of war from Virginia to the Northern Border States. A wounded rebel colonel told me that, in the first and second days's fight, the rebel losses were between ten and eleven thousand. Yesterday, they were greater still. In one part of the field in a space not more than twenty feet in circumference, in front of General Gibbons' division, I counted seven dead rebels, three of whom were piled on top of each other. And close by, in a spot not more than fifteen feet square, lay fifteen "graybacks," stretched in death. These were the adventurous spirits, who, in the face of the horrible stream of canister, shell, and musketry, scaled the fence wall in their attempt upon our batteries. Very large numbers of wounded were also strewn around, not to mention more who had crawled away or been taken away. The field in front of the stone wall was literally covered with dead and wounded, a large proportion of whom were rebels. Where our musketry and artillery took effect they lay in swaths as if mown down by a scythe. This field presented a horrible sight--such as has never yet been witnessed during the war. Not less than one thousand dead and wounded lay in a space of less than four acres in extent, and that, too, after numbers had crawled away to places of shelter.
The Pennsylvania Reserves have always fought well. They fought today more than well. Defending the State of their nativity not only inspired the men with extra courage, but many lived in Gettysburg and about here, and with them it was a fight in reality for their hearths and firesides. Over the heads of their helpless wives and children were passing murderous shells of the rebel invaders. At any moment these shells might fall into their midst, carrying horror and death in their track. Is it to be wondered at that they climbed in the manner they did the rugged ascent of Rock Hill--that they showed no fear of the rebels--that they drove the enemy from the hill, and kept them at bay? And they did keep them at bay, and, by aid of two batteries planted on the summit of the hill are still doing so.
The record of the 3d Corps shows numberless chief officers sacrificed in this fierce encounter, witnessing the desperation with which it was fought. Out of this little Corps nearly 8,000 men were placed hors de combat in this short engagement.
The gallant Birney was twice struck by the bullets of the enemy, though happily but slightly injured. It is but proper to mention that this single acted saved us the day.
From the Correspondence of the Times.
At 2 o'clock, P. M. on Friday, Longstreet's whole Corps advanced from the rebel centre against our centre. The enemy's forces were hurled upon our position by columns in mass, and also in lines of battle. Out centre was held by Gen. Hancock, with the noble old 2d Army Corps, aided by General Doubleday's division of the 1st Corps.
The rebels first opened a terrific artillery bombardment, to demoralize our men, and then moved their forces with great impetuosity upon our position. Hancock received the attack with great firmness, and after a furious battle, lasting until five o'clock, the enemy were driven from the field, Long street's Corps being almost annihilated.
The battle was a most magnificent spectacle. It was fought on an open plain just south of Gettysburg, with not a tree to interrupt the view. The courage of our men was perfectly sublime.
At 5 P.M., what was left of the enemy retreated in utter confusion, leaving dozens of flags, and Gen. Hancock estimated, at least five thousand killed and wounded on the field.
The battle was fought by General Hancock with a splendid valor. He won imperishable honor, and Gen. Meade thanked him in the name of the army and the country. He was wounded in the thigh, but remained on the field.
Head-quarters Army of the Potomac,
July 3d, 8:30, near Gettysburg.--To Maj. Gen. Halleck, Commander-in-Chief.
--The enemy opened at 1 P. M., from about 100 guns concentrated upon my left centre, continuing without intermission for about three hours, at the expiration of which time he assaulted my left centre twice. Being, upon both occasions, handsomely repulsed with severe loss to him, leaving in our hands nearly 3000 prisoners, among them being Gen. Armistead and many Colonels and officers of lesser note.
The enemy left many dead upon the field, and a large number of wounded in our hands.
The loss upon our side has been considerable. Major General Hancock and Brigadier General Gibbon were wounded.
After the repelling of the assault, indications leading to a belief that the enemy might be withdrawing, an armed reconnaissance was pushed forward from the left, and the enemy found to be in force.
At the present hour all is quiet.
My cavalry have been engaged all day on both flanks of the enemy, harassing and vigorously attacking him with great success, notwithstanding they encountered superior numbers, both of cavalry and infantry.
The army is in fine spirits.
(Signed) George G. Meade,
Major General Commanding.
Official Despatch From Gen. Meade.
At the present hour all is quiet.
My cavalry have been engaged all day on both flanks of the enemy, harassing and vigorously attacking him with great success, notwithstanding they encountered superior numbers, both of cavalry and infantry.
The army is in fine spirits.
Signed George G. Meade,
Major General Commanding.
Official Despatch From Gen. Meade.
Washington, July 5--8 P.M.
--The two following despatches have been received:--
Head-quarters Army of the Potomac, Noon, July 4, 1863.
--To Major General Halleck, General-in-Chief.
--The position of affairs is not materially changed since my last despatch, dated 7 A. M. We now hold Gettysburg. The enemy has abandoned large numbers of his killed and wounded on the field.
I shall probably be able to give you a return of our captures and losses before night, and a return of the enemy's killed and wounded in our hands.
George G. Meade, Major General.
Head-quarters, Army of the Potomac, 10 P.M., July 4
--To Major General Halleck, General-in-Chief:
--No change of affairs since my last despatch of 12 o'clock, noon
George G. Meade,
The Latest Official Despatch From Gen. Meade.
Lee Sneaks Away in the Night--Our Cavalry in Pursuit--Over Twenty Battle Flags Captured
Head-quarters Army of the Potomac, July 5, 8:30 A.M.
--To Major General Halleck:
The enemy retired under cover of the night and heavy rain, in the direction of Fairfield and Cashtown. My cavalry is in pursuit.
I cannot give you the details of our captures of prisoners, colors and arms.
Upwards of twenty battle flags will be turned in from our camps.
My wounded and those of the enemy are in our hands.
G. G. Meade,
Rebel Pontoon Bridge Destroyed--Capture of the Guard.
Washington, July 5.
--The following despatch has been received:--
Frederick, MD., July 4, 8 P.M.
--To Gen. Halleck, General-in-Chief:
--An expedition sent out by me has just returned, having entirely destroyed the enemy's pontoon bridge over the Potomac at Williamsport, capturing the guard, consisting of a lieutenant and 13 men.
W. H. French, Major General.
Description of Page: A crease in the page makes some sections illegible.
(Column 1)Summary: Details Pemberton's surrender to Grant at Vicksburg on July 4, 1863.The Invasion! The Whole Rebel Army in Franklin County!
(Column 1)Summary: Reports that the rebel army passed through Chambersburg, before (starting on June 22) and after (the evening of July 3) the battle at Gettysburg.
Full Text of Article:Married
The Whole Rebel Army in Franklin County!
47,000 Pass Through Chambersburg!
Longstreet's Corps Passes by Waynesboro!
They March Upon Harrisburg!
They March Back Again!
Eleven Days of Rebel Occupation in Force!
They Live Well and Steal Liberally!
The Dutch Yanks too Sharp for the Rebels!
Lee's Headquarters at Shetter's Woods.
He Concentrates and Moves upon his Waterloo at Gettysburg!
He Retreats with his Shattered Legions upon the Potomac!
In another part of to-day's paper we give a detailed account of the occupation of this county by the Rebel Chieftain Jenkins. It was written after his departure, and its publication delayed by the occupation of our valley by the entire Rebel Army a few days afterwards.
Gen. Jenkin's Return.
On Tuesday, the 22nd ult., Gen Jenkin's guerrillas returned to Chambersburg, as the advance of Gen. Lee's entire army. He demeaned himself as before and restrained his troops generally from serious acts of wantonness. It was evident, however, that he was but the forerunner of the whole rebel legions, and on Wednesday
General Ewell Arrived.
With him came the first column of rebel infantry that had ever penetrated a free State. Gen. Ewell is a graduate of West Point, and was for some time a civil engineer on the Columbia Railroad in this State. While thus engaged he married Miss McIlvaine of York, who has since separated from him and lives in Eastern Maryland. Soon after the commencement of the Rebellion he joined the rebel cause, and has risen, we believe justly, to the position of one of their first generals. He lost a leg at the second battle of Bull Run, and when he rides on horse-back is always strapped to his horse. His corps is Jackson's old command, and numbers about 20,000 men.
The Rebel Infantry.
There is a marked difference between the character of the rebel infantry and cavalry. The latter are, as a class, superior men in all respects, and generally well-behaved, while the infantry seem to have no conceptions above eating, sleeping, fighting and stealing. Their dress consisted of every style and color. Some had butter-nut cloth, some half Union uniforms, and some every possible mixture of hoes and fashions. Indeed they were not uniform in anything but dirt, impudence, thieving, lice and implacable hatred for the "Yankees."
The Rebels Jubilant.
[Note: This column has a large line through the middle, making some of it illegible.]
The rebel rank and file when here were exceedingly jubilant but the officers, in many instances, [illegible] the greatest apprehensions at the [illegible] of the invasion. The men seemed to [illegible] that the Army of the Potomac was in [illegible] rear in the Shenandoah Valley, and [illegible] they had no foe before them but the [illegible] and they were jolly and insolent in [illegible] degree, and gave the widest latitude [illegible] their thieving propensities. They did [illegible] doubt that they would go into Harrisburg without a contest; carry Baltimore and Washington with little loss, and then select [illegible] position in Pennsylvania, and stay until our teeming wealth should be [illegible]. After the fruitless advance upon [illegible], a few returned by this route, bore with sullenness the reminders of people, that they had forgotten to take [illegible]
Ewell [illegible] Supplies.
General Ewell was the rather unwelcome guest of "mine [illegible] of the Franklin House, on Tuesday night, and on Wednesday he transferred headquarters to the Brick Church, a [illegible] North of town. He made the following requisitions in form upon our people, [illegible] it will be seen that me meant to [illegible] wholesale dealers--
Headquarters [illegible Army] Corps,
June 24th, l863.
To the Authorities Chambersburg, Pa:
By direction of Lt. Gen. R. S. Ewell, I require the following articles:
5,000 suits clothing, including hats, boots and shoes.
100 good saddles.
100 good bridles.
5,000 bushels grain, corn, or oats.
10,000 lbs. sole leather
10,000 lbs. horse shoes
400 lbs. horse shoe nails
Also, the use of Printing office, and two printers to report at [illegible].
All articles except grain will be delivered at the Court House [illegible], at 3 o'clock, p.m., to-day, and the grain by 6 o'clock, P.M., to-day.
Maj. And Ch.Q [illegible] Corps De Arm.
Headquarters [illegible] Army Corps,
[illegible] 24th, 1863.
By command of Lt. Gen. R. S. Ewell, the citizens of Chambersburg will furnish the following articles, by 3 o'clock this afternoon.
6,000 lbs. lead.
10,000 lbs. harness leather.
50 boxes tin.
1000 curry-combs and brushes.
2,000 lbs. picket rope.
All the caps and powder in the town.
Also, all the neats [illegible]
Wm. [illegible], M. And C.
Subsequently another requisition was sent in for the following articles:
50,000 lbs. bread.
100 sacks salt.
30 bbls. molasses.
500 bbls. flour.
25 bbls. vinegar.
25 bbls. beans.
25 bbls. dried fruit.
25 bbls. sour kraut.
25 bbls. potatoes.
11,000 lbs. coffee.
10,000 lbs. sugar.
100,000 lbs. hard bread.
A meeting of the citizens was called and it was resolved that the demand would not be complied with for many reasons--but mainly perhaps because the town had not one-third the articles required in it. The rebels then proceeded to help themselves, in some instances, pretending to pay in rebel scrip; but in fact plundering the town relentlessly. An officer, said to be Major Todd, bother of Mrs. Lincoln, took charge of the stealing operations, and well nigh lost his head several times by some of our enraged ladies who resisted his searches.
Hill's Corps Arrives.
The last of Ewell's Corps came Wednesday, and on Thursday and Friday Hill's corps arrived, putting more than half of the entire rebel army in the neighborhood of Chambersburg. They encamped all along the Greencastle and Fayettville roads, and wherever they stopped, the desolation was complete. We hope hereafter to give a most detailed account of the desolation that followed their fatal tread.
Gen. Lee Arrives.
On Saturday Gen. Lee and Staff reached this place, and the Commander-in-Chief seems to think the beautiful grove of Mr. Shetter, a mile East of town, a more healthy location for him than the borough of Chambersburg. He pitched his tent there, and in that heartsome grove was planned the most sanguinary, and to him the most fatal, battle, of this sanguinary war. He spent several days there, as if uncertain what his movement should be; but his original plans were evidently disconcerted by the rapid march of Meade; and he was compelled to call in his force, from every point, to secure a good position of the South Mountain from which he could give battle. With almost incredible haste he summoned his forces to the Gettysburg road from York, Carlisle, Hancock, McConnelsburg, Chambersburg, and by Thursday his infantry were gone to meet the fearful retribution in store for them at Gettysburg. Imboden's Cavalry had passed Thursday, and on Friday the rear guard, under Jones, had passed through to witness the defeat of their chieftain. In all, Lee passed some 47,000 men and 193 guns through this place, and Longstreet's Corps, the largest in his command, went to Gettysburg direct from Hagerstown by Waynesboro. Gen. Lee is about fifty-two years of age, stout built, of medium height, hair gray, and rough gray beard. He is a quiet, thoughtful man, always courteous, and as a commander, seems to aim at restraining the passion and thieving propensities of his troops within the rules of war. He issued two orders on the subject, which exhibited considerable earnestness on his part to maintain the reputation of himself and army. All the orders issued during the rebel campaign will be given in our next issue.
Railroad Bridges Destroyed.
On Wednesday morning the destruction of the Railroad building began; and they were completely demolished by undermining the foundations and battering down the walls. The destruction is complete, and considerable damage is done to the road. The Scotland bridge was burnt [illegible] and the rails have been torn up in many places.
The March North.
Shippensburg, [illegible], Carlisle and Mechanicsburg were successively occupied by the rebel forces, and Gen. Early took possession of York and so threatened Columbia that Col. Frick withdrew his men and burned the bridge. Gen [illegible] threatened Harrisburg for several days and could have captured it with little difficulty had he moved promptly; but he was intimidated by the assurance received on [illegible] hand that Gens. Couch, McClellan, Sigel, and any number of troops were there to defend it. Gen. Couch was there alone, with but few militia; but he never faltered in his determination to defend the capitol to the last. It is now well fortified, and in addition to the army of Gen. Smith that he has sent to swell the columns of Gen. Meade, he had enough left to guard the line of the Susquehanna in any event.
Lee's Second Invasion of Franklin.
On Wednesday Lee gave battle to Mead's advance, and gained a temporary advantage by his superior numbers; but on Thursday and Friday he hurled his battalions against the lines of our troops time and again, only to see them fall back in confusion and decimated by the rich harvest of death. On Friday night, exhausted, defeated, demoralized and the flower of his army numbered with the dead or writhing in the agony of ghastly wounds, and left to the mercy of his foe, for care and spulchre, Lee made his second invasion of Franklin county. With sullen, heavy step his fragments re-crossed the South Mountain and took the shortest route thro' the hills for the Potomac. Once there, we hope to hear again has he met the Union legions he so willingly sought when he landed on the free soil of the North, and that the remnants of his armed traitors have been destroyed [illegible] captured. At the time of this writing we have no word of Meade having reached Lee on the line of the Potomac, but we know that the gallant Meade is pursuing him swiftly, and that he will stroke with resistless fury whenever he reaches the retreating foe. God crown with final victory the great cause of American Nationality!
Quite a number of negroes were stolen by the army of Gen. Lee, and evidently with the sanction of officers. All ages and condition were taken and carried off to their rear, and as they were taken past rebel encampments, cheer after cheer would go up at the triumph of the negro- stealers. But few were taken off, however, as the negroes in many instances escaped, and so hurriedly did the columns move from here that a number were forgotten.
The Rebel Retreat.
The rebel retreat, notwithstanding the fatal disaster at Gettysburg, was conducted with comparative order, although thousands of dispirited soldiers deserted their ranks and are now concealed in the mountains. Many of their wounded were taken with them. Reliable men report that they took from 10,000 to 12,000 wounded through Greencastle on Sunday and Monday last. Their train commenced to pass there on Sunday morning at 4 A.M., and continued until 11 A. M. Monday. All along the roads, over which their several columns passed, wounded have been found--some helpless, others dying, and many dead. The inexorable laws of war, requiring the lives and care of wounded to be subordinated to the safety of the remnant of the army, left these poor wretches uncared for and apparently unpitied, to die and find hospitable graves in the land they sought to desolate.
(Column 2)Summary: On June 11, at the home of Capt. J. Sprecher near Chambersburg, by the Rev. J. Dickson, James Cress, M. S., of Gettysburg, married Margaret R. Durboraw, daughter of Mr. Durboraw, Esq., of Adams County.Married
(Names in announcement: Capt. J. Sprecher, Rev. J. Dickson, James CressM. D., Miss Margaret R. Durboraw, Mr. DurburawEsq.)
(Column 2)Summary: On June 4, in the Central Presbyterian church, of Baltimore, Maryland, by the Rev. Joseph T. Smith, D. D., William Kennedy, Esq., of Chambersburg, married Ellen A. Culbertson, of Baltimore, Maryland.Married
(Names in announcement: Rev. Joseph T. SmithD. D., Wm. KennedyEsq., Miss Ellen A. Culbertson)
(Column 2)Summary: On June 16, by the Rev. H. Heckerman, J. Henry Hutton, of Chambersburg, married Emma J. Taylor, daughter of the late Judge Taylor, of Bedford, Pennsylvania.Married
(Names in announcement: Rev. H. Heckerman, Mr. J. Henry Hutton, Miss Emma J. Taylor, Judge Taylor)
(Column 2)Summary: On June 9, at the Lutheran parsonage, by Rev. J. Steck, John M. Forney, of Strasburg, married Margaret A. Frank, of Chambersburg.Married
(Names in announcement: Rev. J. Steck, John M. Forney, Margaret A. Frank)
(Column 2)Summary: On June 10, by Rev. J. Steck, Jacob R. Lightcat married Lydia S. Houser, both of Chambersburg.Died
(Names in announcement: Rev. J. Steck, Mr. Jacob R. Lightcat, Miss Lydia S. Houser)
(Column 3)Summary: On June 7, in Chambersburg, at the residence of her grandsons, Messrs. T. and S. A. Cook, Sarah Jeffrey died at age 87.Died
(Names in announcement: Mrs. Sarah Jeffrey, Mr. T. Cook, Mr. S. A. Cook)
(Column 3)Summary: On June 9, at the home of his mother, in Chambersburg, Edward L. Smith died at age 36 years, 7 months, and 9 days.Died
(Names in announcement: Mrs. Smith, Mr. Edward L. Smith)
(Column 3)Summary: On June 11, in Green Township, Easter Freet, wife of Christian Freet, died at age 54 years, 8 months, and 27 days.Died
(Names in announcement: Mrs. Easter Freet, Mr. Christian Freet)
(Column 3)Summary: On June 19, George Goettmann, died at age 25 years, 9 months, and 2 days.Died
(Names in announcement: Mr. George Goettman)
(Column 3)Summary: On May 26, after a pulmonary illness, George Peakle, of Little Cove, Franklin County, died in his 64th year.Died
(Names in announcement: Mr. George Peakle)
(Column 3)Summary: On June 3, in Delavan, Tazewell County, Illinois, Laura N. McDowell, daughter of William McDowell, formerly of Franklin County, died in her 26th year.
(Names in announcement: Miss Laura N. McDowell, Mr. Wm. McDowell)
Description of Page: The page includes advertisements.
Brief War Items
(Column 1)Summary: The Repository reports various bits of information, including: 3,000 rebel prisoners from Vicksburg are in Indianapolis; 6,000 soldiers are in the Washington hospitals; $15,000,000 losses in the Southwestern raids; the Mississippi troops in Bragg's army are mutinous; Gen. Rosecrans has ordered that all captured rebel officers will not be paroled or exchanged; praise for various troops of black soldiers; a note of the deceased Stonewall Jackson's sister who is a Unionist.
Description of Page: The page includes advertisements and train schedules.
The Franklin Repository
(Column 1)Summary: The editors give a history of the Franklin Repository newspaper.
(Names in announcement: George K. Harper, Hon. George Chambers, Joseph PrittsEsq., Mr. Mish, R. P. Hazelet, Dr. S. G. Lane, George EysterEsq., G. H. Merklein)Full Text of Article:Death Of A Venerable Lady
With this issue we return to the old and time-honored title of this paper adopted by its founder seventy years ago--The Franklin Repository. With this name it was published by George K. Harper Esq., for nearly half a century, and enjoyed a degree of popular confidence and patronage which, in those days, was unparalleled in rural journalism. For many years, we believe that Hon. George Chambers was its chief Editorial contributor, although his name did not appear, nor had he any pecuniary interest in the enterprise. When the Anti-Masonic element became the predominating power opposed to the Democracy, Mr. Raper did not harmonized with it--he being an adhering Mason. The Chambersburg Whig was founded by Joseph Pritts, Esq., we believe, and his erratic but gifted pen made his journal a formidable rival; but as the political elements opposed to Democracy combined, the Whig was prudently united with the Repository, and the title of the paper became the Repository and Whig. Subsequently the Franklin Intelligencer was founded by Mr. Mish, and published for some time with indifferent success, when it was also united with the Repository and Whig. The Transcript was the next candidate for popular favor. It was founded by R. P. Hazelet Esq., with Dr. S. G. Lane as Editor, and was neutral in politics. The American movement appeared on the surface soon after, and it engulfed The Transcript as its organ, with George Eyster, Esq., as its Editor, who infused into it great vigor, and had success been possible would have attained it. In 1855, The Transcript was united with the Repository and Whig, and the paper was issued with the title of Repository and Transcript. In 1861 the Dispatch was founded by G. H. Merklein & Co., as a semi-weekly, and pushed with considerable ability and success. The high price of paper, however, soon rendered a semi-weekly impracticable, and it was reduced to a weekly when the other papers of the town were compelled to diminish in size to avoid bankruptcy. The Dispatch has now been united with this paper, and as it is impossible to preserve any evidence of the existence of all the papers combined with this one, we go back to the familiar old title, and present the Union party to-day [sic] with a journal, worthy, we trust, of their confidence and cordial support. The union is regarded as judicious in every view of the case; and as the Repository has no personal or factious ends to accomplish, but seeks to serve the entire Union party of this section of the State, it will commend itself, by a firm, judicious and independent course, to the intelligent judgment of every lover of the Union cause.
(Column 1)Summary: Announces the death of Sarah Jeffries on July 7 in Chambersburg at the age 87.Our Drafted Men
(Names in announcement: T. Cook, S. A. Cook, Mrs. Sarah Jeffrey)
(Column 1)Summary: The editors have received the address of Brig. Gen. Spinola who is in charge of the 158th Pa. Vols., which is made up of men from Franklin and surrounding counties. The General praises the behavior of his forces. The paper praises Col. McKibbin and the 158th.Return Of Mr. Helser And Son
(Names in announcement: Brig. Gen. Spinola, Col. McKibbin)
(Column 1)Summary: Announces the return of Solomon Helser and his son, who were arrested and banished from Franklin County (perhaps the Union).
(Names in announcement: Mr. Solomon Helser, Mr. Helser)Full Text of Article:Promoted
--We learn that Mr. Solomon Helser and his son, who were arrested some weeks ago in this place, and by Gen. Schenck sent to Gen. Milroy with orders to send them beyond our lines, have been allowed to return, and are now at home, and have taken the oath of allegiance to the government. It is not publicly known on what specific charges the Helsers were arrested, but we understand that, when with Gen. Milroy, they received a suspension of the sentence of banishment until they could have an opportunity to rebut the charges preferred against them. As they have since been discharged, we infer that the evidence produced either acquitted them, or mitigated the offences materially, and they are entitled to the benefit of a charitable judgment. Mr. Helser should so demean himself now that there may be no question about his loyalty. There can be no neutrals in this war. Neutrality is impossible--indifference criminal.
(Column 2)Summary: Notes the promotion of Sergeant Peter Cummings to 2nd Lieutenant--he was recruited from this region to General Campbell's regiment in Battery A and fought in numerous battles.The United States Hotel
(Names in announcement: Sergeant Peter Cummings, General Campbell)
(Column 2)Summary: David H. Hutchinson, formerly of Franklin, is a partner in the recent purchase of the United States Hotel in Harrisburg.War Claims
(Names in announcement: David H. Hutchinson)
(Column 2)Summary: Maj. John M. Pomeroy, formerly of Franklin, is in charge of War claims against either the state or national government, and is located in Philadelphia.A Public Dinner
(Names in announcement: Maj. John M. Pomeroy)
(Column 2)Summary: A dinner was given to returned nine months' soldiers in Waynesboro, where the Revs. Dr. Dorsey, Krebs and Kester, and Col. Rowe and I. H. McCauley, Esq., gave addresses.Mr. George Trostle
(Names in announcement: Rev. Dr. Dorsey, Rev. Dr. Krebs, Rev. Dr. Kester, Col. Rowe, I. H. McCauleyEsq.)
(Column 2)Summary: George Trostle, father of Daniel Trostle of Chambersburg, died in Adams County, at the age of nearly 88.Promoted
(Names in announcement: George Trostle, Daniel Trostle)
(Column 3)Summary: Lieut. D. S. Gordon, 2d Regular Cavalry, late of Washington Township, has been promoted to a Captaincy and attached to the staff of Gen Schenck. His promotion was "well earned by gallant service in the field."
(Names in announcement: Lieutenant D. S. Gordon)