Franklin Repository: July 15, 1863Go To Page : 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |
(Column 1)Summary: The editors reprint orders from General Lee regarding the proper conduct required of his soldiers and the proper treatment of civilians. The article includes a list of prosecuted soldiers and numerous reports of abuses committed by the soldiers--including the burning of Thaddeus Stevens's Iron Works and the murder of Mr. Strite.
(Names in announcement: Hon. Thaddeus Stevens, Mr. Sweeney, Mr. David Brandt, Rev. Dr. Schneck, Rev. Father Cullom, Mr. John Noel, Mr. Strite, Mr. Fisher)Full Text of Article:Brief War Items
The Rebel Orders!
Rebel Ideas of the North!
Destruction of Stevens' Works!
How Rebels Keep their Spirits Up!
Mr. Strite Brutally Murdered!
Bombardment of Carlisle!
As part of the history of the Rebel Invasion of the North, we have gathered up all the general orders issued by Gens. Lee and Ewell, relating to the treatment of citizens and property, while in the Cumberland Valley. Lee's first order on the subject was issued on the 21st of June, six days before he [illegible] Chambersburg. It was evidently designed to define generally the plan of operations of his army in our county, and as will be seen aimed at a fair standard of humanity and decorum in his ranks. The following is the order.
Headquarters Army Northern Virginia,
June 21, 1863
General Orders No. 72.--While in the enemy's country, the following regulations for procuring supplies will be strictly observed, and any violation of them promptly and rigorously punished:
I. No private property shall be injured or destroyed by any person belonging to or connected with the army, or taken, except by the officers hereinafter designated.
II. The chiefs of the Commissary, Quartermaster, Ordnance and Medical departments of the army will make requisitions upon the local authorities or inhabitants for the necessary supplies for their respective departments, designating the places and times of delivery. All persons complying with such requisitions shall be paid the market price for the articles furnished, if they so desire, and the officer making such payment shall take duplicate receipts for the same, specifying the name of the person paid, the quantity, kind, and price of the property, one of which receipts shall be at once forwarded to the chief of the department for which such officer is attached.
III. Should the authorities or inhabitants neglect or refuse to comply with such requisitions, the supplies acquired will be taken from the nearest inhabitants refusing, by the order and under the direction of the respective chiefs of the departments named.
IV. When any command is detached from the main body, the chiefs of the several departments of such command will procure supplies for the same, and such other stores as they may be ordered to provide, in the manner and subject to the provisions herein prescribed, reporting their action to the heads of their respective departments, to which they will forward duplicates of all vouchers given or received.
V. All persons who shall decline to receive payment for property furnished on requisitions, and all from whom it shall be necessary to take stores or supplies, shall be furnished by the officers receiving or taking the same with a receipt specifying the kind and and [sic] quantity of the property received or taken, as the case may be, the name of the person from whom it was received or taken, the command for the use of which it is intended, and the market price. A duplicate of said receipt shall be at once forwarded to the chief of the department to which the officer by whom it is executed is attached.
VI. If any person shall remove or conceal property necessary for the use of the army, or attempt to do so, the officers hereinbefore mentioned will cause such property and all other property belonging to such persons that may be required by the army, to be seized, and the officers seizing the same will forthwith report to the chief of his department the kind, quantity and market price of the property so seized, and the name of the owner.
By command of Gen. R. E. Lee.
R. H. Chilton, A. A. and I. G.
Lieut.-Gen. R. S. Ewell,
Com'g 2d Army Corps.
On the day following the date of Lee's order, Gen. Ewell issued a general order on the same subject, as follows:
Headquarters 2d. Corp,
Army Northern Va., June 22, 1863
General Orders, No. 49.--In moving in the enemy's country the utmost circumspection and vigilance is necessary for the safety of the army and the success of the great object it has to accomplish, depends upon the observance of the most rigid discipline. The Lieutenant General Commanding, therefore, most earnestly appeals to the gallant officers and men of his command, who have attested their bravery and devotion to the cause of their country on so many battle fields, to yield a ready acquiescence in the rules required by the exigencies of the case.
All straggling and marauding from the ranks, and all marauding and plundering by individuals are prohibited, upon pain of the severest penalties known to the service.
What is required for the use of the army will be taken under regulations to be established by the Commanding General, according to the usages of civilized warfare.
Citizens of the country through which the army may pass, who are not in the military service, are admonished to abstain from all acts of hostility, upon the penalty of being dealt with in a summary manner. A ready acquiescence to the demands of the military authorities will serve greatly to lessen the rigors of war. By command of
Liet. Gen. R. S. Ewell,
A. L. Pendleton, A. A. Gen.
The foregoing was issued before Ewell entered Chambersburg. On the 23d a portion of his command reached this place, and on the 24th the General arrived, and immediately issued the following:
Headquarters 2d Corps
Army of Northern Virginia, June 22.
Chambersburg, June 24, 1863.
General Orders.--1. The sale of intoxicating liquors to this command, without written permission from a Major General, is strictly prohibited.
2. Persons having liquor in their possession are required to report the fact to the Provost-Marshall or the nearest general officer, stating the amount and kind, that a guard may be placed over it, and the men prevented from getting it.
3. Any violation of Part I. of these orders, or failure to comply with Part II., will be punished by the immediate confiscation of all liquors in the possession of the offending parties, beside rendering their other property liable to seizure.
4. Citizens of the country through which the army may pass, who are not in the military service, are admonished to abstain from all acts of hostility, upon the penalty of being dealt with in a summary manner. A ready acquiescence to the demands of the military authorities will serve to lessen the rigors of war. By command of
Lieut. Gen. R. J. Ewell.
A. S. Pendleton, A. A. General.
Notwithstanding the orders of both Lee and Ewell, there were numerous instances of wanton injury to property and outrages committed upon citizens. Gen. Lee reached this place on the 27th, and was doubtless informed that a portion of his army was disregarding his instructions, and he at once issued another order, as follows:
Headquarters Army Northern Virginia,
Chambersburg, Pa., June 27, 1863.
General Orders No. 73.--The Commanding General has observed with marked satisfaction the conduct of the troops on the march, and confidently anticipates results commensurate with the high spirit they have manifested.
No troops could have displayed greater fortitude, or better performed the arduous marches of the past ten days.
Their conduct in other respects has, with few exceptions, been in keeping with their character as soldiers, and entitles them to approbation and praise.
There have, however, been instances of forgetfulness on the part of some, that they have in keeping the yet unsullied reputation of this army, and that the duties exacted of us by civilization and christianity are not less obligatory in the country of the enemy than in our own.
The Commanding General considers that no greater disgrace could befal [sic] the army, and through it, our whole people, than the perpetration of the barbarous outrages upon the unarmed and defenceless, and the wanton destruction of private property, that have marked the course of the enemy in our own country.
Such proceedings not only degrade the perpetrators and all connected with them, but are subversive of the discipline and efficiency of the army, and destructive of the ends of our present movement.
It must be remembered that we make war only upon armed [illegible] and that we cannot take vengeance for the wrongs our people have suffered without lowering ourselves in the eyes of all whose abhorrence has been excited by the atrocities of our enemies, and offending against Him to whom vengeance belongeth, without whose favor and support our efforts must all prove in vain.
The Commanding General therefore earnestly exhorts the troops to abstain with most scrupulous care from unnecessary or wanton injury to private property, and he enjoins upon all officers to arrest and bring to summary punishment all who shall in any way offend against orders on this subject.
R. E. Lee, General.
The only other order issued in this valley relating to the conduct of the rebel army, was issued in the form of an address to the citizens of York, to impress the people of that ancient village of the sublimated magnanimity of the rebel commander. It was as follows:
To the Citizens of York: I have abstained from burning the railroad building and car shops in your town, because, after examination, I am satisfied the safety of the town would be endangered; and, acting in the spirit of humanity, which has ever characterized my Government and its military authorities, I do not desire to involve the innocent in the same punishment with the guilty. Had I applied the torch without regard to consequences, I would have pursued a course that would have been vindicated as an act of just retaliation for the many authorized acts of barbarity perpetrated by your own army upon our soil. But we do not war upon women and children, and I trust the treatment you have met with at the hands of my soldiers will open your eyes to the monstrous iniquity of the war waged by your Government upon the people of the Confederate States, and that you will make an effort to shake off the revolting tyranny under which it is apparent to all you are yourselves groaning.
J. A. Early, Maj.-Gen. C.S.A.
Rebel Court Martial.
The discipline of the rebel army was admirable. No private or subaltern dared to disregard an order in presence of his superior, or where his superior officer was likely to be advised of it. When the rebel columns filed through Chambersburg, they marched with the utmost order and decorum, and laughing, talking loudly or singing was not indulged in. That this was the result of the strictest discipline rather than an indication of the good breeding of the infantry rank and file, is evident from the fact that whenever a squad could get isolated from their officers or commanders, they would rob mercilessly and commit all manner of outrages. When rebel officers behave badly, they do not dismiss them, but reduce them to the ranks, as in the case of Lieut. J. B. Countiss, given below. The following order, issued by Gen. Ewell, exhibits the proceedings of several cases tried by Court Martial at Ewell's headquarters near the Birch Church north of Chambersburg:
Headquarters 2d Corps, Army
Northern Va., June 25, 1863
General Order, No. 51.--I. Before the Military Court, convened at the Headquarters of the Army Corps of Lieut. Gen. R. S. Ewell, and of which Court Col. R. H. Lee is presiding Judge, were arraigned and tried.
The specifications in the following cases being lengthy and minute, are omitted:
lst Lieut. J. B. Countiss, Ga. Regiment.
Charge I. Drunkenness on duty.
Charge II. Conduct to the prejudice of good order and discipline
Finding--Of the Specification of the lst charge, Guilty.
Of the lst Charge, Guilty.
Of the Specification of the 2d Charge, Guilty
Of the 2d Charge, Guilty
Sentence--And the Court do therefore sentence the said Lieut. J. B. Countiss, 21st Georgia Regiment, to be cashiered.
2d. Private Charles Smith, Co. C, 45th N. C. Regiment.
Finding--Of the Specification, Guilty.
Of the Charge Not Guilty, but
Of absence without leave, Guilty.
Sentence--And the Court do therefore sentence the said Private Charles Smith, Co. C. 45th N. C. Regiment, to forfeit three months pay and to be branded on the left hip with the letter 'S' two inches in length, in the presence of his Regiment.
3d. Private Louis M. Waynock, Co. B, 45th Regiment.
Finding--Of the Specification, Guilty,
Of the Charge, Not Guilty, but
Of absence without leave, Guilty.
Sentence--And the Court do therefore sentence the said Louis M. Waynock, Co. B, 45th N. C. Regt., to forfeit three months pay, and to be branded on the left hip with the Letter S, two inches in length, in the presence of his Regiment.
4th. Private Patrick Herne, Co. C, 5th Ala. Regiment.
Charge--Violation of 9th Article of War.
Finding--Of the Specification, Guilty.
Of the Charge, Guilty
Sentence--And the Court do therefore sentence the said Patrick Herne, Co. C, 5th Ala. Regt., to forfeit his pay for three months, to perform extra police and fatigue duty for two months, and to be bucked two hours each day, for seven days.
II. The preceding, findings and sentence in the case of Lieut. J. B. Countiss, 21st Georgia Regiment, are approved, and the sentence will be carried onto effect; and Lieut. J. B. Countiss ceases, from this date, to be an officer of the Confederate States Army. He will be enrolled and conscripted by his Brigade commander, and will be allowed to join any company in his preseat [sic] Brigade that he may select.
The proceedings, findings and sentences in the cases of Privates Charles Smith, Co. C., 45th N. C. Regt. and Louis M. Waynock, Co. B, 45th N. C. Regt, are approved, and the sentences will be carried into effece [sic], except so much of them as inflict the punishment of branding, which is hereby remitted.
The proceedings, findings, and sentence in the case of Private Patrick Herne, Co. C, 5th Ala. Regt., are approved, and the sentence will be carried into effect.
By command of
Lieut. Gen. R. S. Ewell.
A. S. Pendleton, A. A. General,
Our Ladies and the Rebels.
Our ladies gave the rebels rather a jolly time while they were here. They did not imitate the wives and daughters of the chivalry by spitting in the faces of soldiers, poisoning their meat and drink, flaunting flags in their faces, and unsexing themselves generally; but they did give them rather an unwelcome taste of their heroism and strategy. One lady took her chickens from the rebels after they had killed them, and dined sumptuously at home at least one day under rebel rule. Another arrested Dr. Todd in his insolence by informing him in rather an earnest manner that further searches in her house would result in the splitting of his head with her hatchet. The valiant Doctor subsided. Another amused herself by running rebel deserters out of the lines dressed in hoops and calico; and generally our ladies resented the arrogance of the rebel hosts with such spirit and determination as to astound them. Communication between Chambersburg and Harrisburg was interrupted for ten days, and amongst the many other unreliable reports which reached here was the gratifying information that Gens. Couch, McClellan and Sigel were at Harrisburg with from 80 to 100,000 men, and the intelligence was given to the rebels at every step with all the defiant ardor peculiar to the sex. In many instances our ladies prevented the boldest thieving by resolutely resisting, and shaming the rebels out of their purpose.--Those who shall be so fortunate as to return to Virginia will carry with them the liveliest appreciation of the heroism and intelligence of Pennsylvania ladies.
Rebel Ideas of the North.
Some of the border State, and most of the more southern rebels, have rather peculiar conceptions of the Pennsylvania Dutch. Quite a number were astonished to find our people speaking English, as they supposed that the prevalent language was the German. At first when they attempted derisive remarks, they would imitate the broken English of the Germans; and judging from Ewell's demand for 25 bbls. of sourkraut at a season when it is unknown in any country, even the commanding officers must have considered our people as profoundly Dutch. It would require an intensely Dutch community to supply sourkraut in July. Our farm buildings and especially our large and fine barns all through the valley, at once excited their astonishment and admiration. Quite a number of officers visited the barn of the Editor as a matter of curiosity, although there are many in our valley much larger and quite as well finished. The private soldiers generally concluded that it must be the church of some very large denomination in this community; and [illegible] out-building about it, such as chicken-[illegible], hog-pen, carriagehouse, &c., were generally supposed to be servant's houses, and very neat ones!
Rebel Pretext For Stealing.
Clean as Gen. Lee kept his record by his humane orders, his army did the most gigantic and systemic stealing. They stole everything they could possibly use, or hope to use; and when their little remnant of shame compelled them to offer some apology for it, they invariably answered that our troops had done so and much more in their country. Every rebel who wanted to steal a chicken or a hat, or a watch, insisted that he was a most generous and humane conqueror--that his home had been burned down over the heads of his family by the Yankees, while he generously spared our homes from the torch. Dirty, lousy, thieving whelps who had scarcely ever seen a house at home, much less owned one, and who are despised in the south even by the slaves as "poor white trash" declared with one accord that they had been burned out of house and home by the "d----d yankees." Armed with this excuse, they flung the lie into everybody's face until it became a standing joke of the boys, and was treated with scorn by our people generally. Even the scanty wardrobes of the negro famlies [sic] were appropriated by the chivalry by way of demonstrating their elected and humane views of war.
Keeping Rebel Spirits Up.
Never was an army more confident and jubilent [sic] than were the rebels while in Chambersburg; and the officers evidently appreciated the necessity of keeping their hopes up to the highest point. The Richmond papers were received almost daily during their stay, and the men were inspired by the sensation, lies published representing rebel success in almost every portion of the South; and the universal demand made by the rebel press for a general devastation of the North, induced the soldiers to believe that as soon as their lodgment was made safe, they would be at liberty to occupy or sack our homes at pleasure. One edition of the Richmond papers received here announced that Gen. Johnson had defeated Gen. Grant and raised the siege of Vicksburg. It was read to the army while on parade and they cheered themselves horse over their imaginary triumph. They were inspired by every conceivable falsehood. Not a rebel in the ranks doubted that he had from 125,000 to 150,000 men, while he had not over 80,000 all told; and they were all firmly convinced that they had eluded Gen. Meade's army, and that it was in search of them in the valley of Shenandoah, while nothing but the militia stood between them and Harrisburg, Baltimore and Washington. Their rather sudden retreat from York and Carlisle threw a shadow of doubt over their high expectations, and their confidence was not strengthened any by the defiant and jublant [sic] tone of our people who confronted them at every step with the assurance that they were marching to defeat and many to death.
Burning of Stevens' Furnace.
The only private property destroyed by the order of an officer in this valley was the extensive Iron Works of Hon. Thaddeus Stevens, [illegible] miles east of this place. They consisted of a large charcoal Furnace, Forge, Rolling-Mill, coal-house, shops &c. On Tuesday the 23d a portion of Jenkin's cavalry came upon the works by an unfrequented mountain road from Hughes' works, and demanded the horses, and especially the two riding horses, which they described. They threatened that they would destroy the building if the horses were not given up. Mr. Sweeney, who has charge of the works, agreed to deliver up the riding horses if the property would be protected. This they agreed to, but on going for the riding horses they met the teamsters and compelled them to produce all the horses and mules, nearly forty in all with gears, harness &c. They had evidently been minutely informed of the whereabouts of Mr. Steven's horses, as they described them and knew exactly where to go after them. The day after, Gen. Early rode up to the works accompanied by his staff and vowed his intention to destroy them. Mr. Sweeney reminded him that he would inflict a much more serious injury upon some hundred poor laborers who worked there than upon Mr. Stevens. Gen. Early replies that Mr. Stevens was "an enemy of the South, in favor of confiscating their property and arming their negroes, and the property must be destroyed." He then placed a guard around it and gave special instructions that it should not be destroyed until he gave the order. He seemed exceedingly fearful that he might miss the delightful spectacle of Mr. Stevens' works in flames. He then returned to Greenwood, where he had his head-quarters, but returned the next day, and personally detailed Col. French, of Jenkin's guerrillas, with his command to illustrate southern chivalry and humanity by applying a torch to the private property of Mr. Stevens because he was guilty of the crime of defending the Republic of our fathers. The work of destruction was well done, and soon all the works were in ashes. The houses occupied by families were not fired. Some $3,000 worth of charcoal was destroyed, 7,000 lb. bacon stolen, leaving the families of the laborers without food, in spite of the earnest representations made by Mr. Sweeney as to their necessitous condition. Mr. Stevens [illegible] is not less than $50,000. He is the only one in Pennsylvania who has been thus honored by the vandals for his unflinching devotion to Freedom.
Rebel Inquiries Vary.
When the rebel horde first entered the State flushed with the hope of early victories on the [illegible] and boundless plunder in Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington they would yell insolently at every man or woman they met--"Well Yank, how far is Harrisburg?" "How far to Baltimore?" "What's the charge at the Continental?" "How do you like our return to the Union?" "Which is the way to Washington?" "How do you like Lincoln's Devils?" These and similar inquiries were made with a degree of arrogance and confidence that clearly betokened their expectations to see, as conquerors, all the cities named during their stay. When, however, their shattered and bleeding columns commenced their retreat on Saturday after battle, there was but one inquiry made alike by officers and men--"How far to the Potomac?" "How far to the Potomac?" And thus their broken, decimated ranks straggled along the mountain passes, grasping for the last hope left them--the Potomac! Three days of deadly strife with the foe they effected to despise, turned their backs upon their homes already desolated by their wanton, wicked war!
Rebel Ideas of Lincoln.
Even intelligent rebel officers insisted that Lincoln was a fugitive in Boston and dare not occupy his capital, and the rank and file were regaled with that and equally absurd falsehoods. Others declared that he was habitually intoxicated and unable to attend to his official duties because of his intemperance. Those men were evidently taught to regard President Lincoln as brutal and barbarous in an eminent degree, and they were amazed to find the loyal of all parties alike respecting him and the Government.
Their Vandalism Falls Upon Themselves.
There was quite an assortment of Hospital goods here when the rebels came, most of which they wantonly destroyed--breaking up the bed frames and tearing the clothes. When they left for Gettysburg they left a number of their sick in the school-house in charge of a young rebel medical student with the charities of the people of our town to depend upon for subsistence, medicines, &c. Subsequently a number of their wounded were captured and brought here and the vandalism of their troops fell upon their own sick and wounded, as we were without the necessary supplies to make them comfortable. After robbing all our drug stores, our physicians had to furnish medicines for their sick and wounded.
Pryor and Piety.
Rev. Mr. Pryor, father of the blustering Gen. Roger A. Pryor, who didn't fight Potter when in Congress, was with Lee as chaplain and seemed to have a general supervision of the piety of the army. He represented the progress of religion as eminently satisfactory, and seemed to regard the rebels as perfectly Cromwellian in morals. True they would steal negroes and from Negroes, and anything else from a ten-penny nail to a six horse team; but they were nevertheless a model army, according to Pryor, in all the attributes of christian character. Our people generally thought that the scale of Zion must be very low down South.
Heavy Loss of Live Stock.
Mr. David Brandt, residing near town, was taken and held prisoner by the Rebels near Williamsport, on Sunday, the 5th inst. Being released on Thursday, he returned home and informed us that the Rebels attempted to drive 700 head of cattle and 1000 head of sheep across the Potomac on Monday, but owing to the great height of the river, all the stock was drowned except 12 of the cattle.
Some Enterprising Doings of the Rebs.
The Rebs performed some exploits while in our town and vicinity of an exceedingly chivalric character. As Ewell's corps was about entering town, a young man was compelled by certain parties to give up his watch. Rev. Dr. Schneck was met near town, while one of the Corps were on the march, by two persons wearing the brilliant uniform of Reb Soldiers, and threatened with instant death if he did not at once surrender his watch and his money. The amount taken was $50, and the watch was of great value, a highly prized gift from some of the Doctor's friends when he visited Germany some years ago. Reb. Father Cullom was also robbed of his watch and a sum of money upon a peremptory demand. As the Rebs didn't seems to be entirely proficient in the command to "make time," they evinced good judgment in stealing watches to "make time" for them. Their hatred of "Abe Lin corn" was exhibited in the alacrity with which they sole "greenbacks," containing the said "Abe's" portrait and certain emblems of the Government over which he presides, and holding on to them with the tenacity of leeches.
A most brilliant performance was stealing a pipe out of the mouth of our venerable friend, Mr. John Noel, with the remark that he had smoked it long enough. The circumstance gave the old gentleman ample opportunity to express his opinion emphatically on the Rebs and Rebeldom, and, with certain threats he succeeded in getting his pipe back.
A number of intelligent and enterprising Rebels declared that the statue of Franklin surmounting the cupola of our Court House was intended to represent "Ole Pete Lincorn," and expressed their determination to destroy it. Their vandalism upon it, however, they failed to execute.
The skill of the Rebs in stealing hats from the heads of citizens was admirable and would be sufficient to establish a high character for any thief in the land. Approaching a citizen, they would steal his hat while in the act of interrogating him, or as he was uttering a reply. It may be also stated that some of our people were compelled to sit down while the Rebels stole boots and shoes from their feet.
These are only a few minor exhibitions of Reb "refinement, gentility and enterprise." For evidence of what they did on a large scale, our readers need but see our depleted stores, the ruins of the railroad buildings, and the miles of torn and burned railroad track. Nearly every farmer in the whole valley sustained losses in stock almost irreparable, and hardly a citizen but has suffered to a more or less extent.
Murder of Mr. Strite.
Mr. Strite, a peaceful and inoffensive citizen was cruelly murdered by some of the Reb soldiers of Hill's corps on his farm located near the Greencastle road, three miles from town. He was standing in his yard, when three of the villains approached him and demanded his money. He immediately surrendered it. Soon after two more men came to him making a similar demand. The murderers buried his body in a dung heap, and then fled. Mr. Strite leaves a large family. The shocking manner of his death occasioned the most profound indignation wherever it becmae [sic] known.
Another Heroic Act.
We learn that Mr. Fisher, residing on the Warm Spring Road, a few miles from town, was shamefully beaten and robbed, and is now in a critical condition.
Major Adams, 1st N.Y. Cavalry, paroled a large number of invalid Rebs here in the School House Hospital on Sunday, the 5th instant.
Rebs in our County Prison.
A large number of Rebs, captured on the road leading from town, were quartered during the last week in our county prison, and removed in parties at times under strong guard to Harrisburg. The party sent off on Friday numbered 214. Many of them expressed an earnest desire to take the oath of allegiance, but the military authorities failed to gratify them. The opportunity will, no doubt, be afforded them to give this evidence of returning sense and loyalty at the proper time and place.
Bombardment of Carlisle.
The only engagement beyond the skirmishing of scouts in the Cumberland Valley was at Carlisle. Gen. Lee had recalled his troops from York, Carlisle and other points North to join him at Gettysburg. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, with his division of Cavalry had crossed from Hanover Station to join Gen.[illegible] at Carlisle, but when he reached that point he found Gen. Smith in the town with several thousand Union troops. Lee was evidently disconcerted, and in order to lead Gen. Smith to suppose that he had purposely advanced to engage him, and thus enable him to make his escape should Smith's force be very large, he at once demanded an immediate surrender of the town. This Gen. Smith emphatically refused; and when a second demand for his surrender was sent him he notified Lee that he would receive no more such communication from him. Twenty minutes were generously allowed by the son of the rebel commander-in-chief for women and children to get out of the town. Of course but few got away as it was after night, and the chivalric Lee opened his guns upon the town. He threw nearly two hundred shells, most of which did not explode, and but little damage was done. Several houses were penetrated, but none of the citizens were injured. Lee then retreated to witness his father's Waterloo at Gettysburg.
(Column 6)Summary: The article reports items of war news including: General Dix cut railroad communication between Richmond; General Lee of North Carolina is dissatisfied with Jefferson Davis; list of dead compiled by the Surgeon General.
The Battle Of Gettysburg
(Column 1)Summary: The Repository provides descriptions of the battle of Gettysburg staring July 1, as reported by the Philadelphia Inquirer, the Herald, the Richmond Enquirer, and the Whig newspapers. The article includes orders by various officers and a description of General Lee's plans.
Editorial Comment: "The Philadelphia Inquirer, of the 7th inst., contains the only detailed description of the battle of Gettysburg on Wednesday that has come to hand. The correspondent says:"
Full Text of Article:Farewell Speech Of Gen. Tyler
The Battle of Gettysburg.
The Philadelphia Inquirer, of the 7th inst., contains the only detailed description of the battle of Gettysburg on Wednesday that has come to hand. The correspondent says:
To-day, and on Pennsylvania soil, has been fought one of the most desperate and bloody battles of this accursed rebellion.
We have attacked a force honestly our superior in numbers--a force not worn down with nineteen days of rapid marching in heat and rain, dust and mud--and one splendidly positioned and entrenched. Against all these advantages a portion of our war-worn, battle-scarred veterans struggled, never flinching or skulking from any duty assigned them, but making desperate bayonet charges, rushing to the very jaws of death, and although suffering severely yet have they managed to seriously cripple the enemy, and at the same time retain possession of the town of Gettysburg, which they sought to repossess.
This morning, early, the First and Eleventh corps, which had been during the night encamped near Emmettsburg, advanced, the First corps marching in the following order: First division under Gen. Wadsworth; Third division, Gen. Doubleday; these followed by five full batteries under Col. Wainwright; bringing up the rear was the really splendid division of Gen. Robinson; this corps having been in the advance during the whole time of our march from Falmouth, were the first to come up with and fight the enemy.
During the day this corps had been under the direction of Major-Gen. Doubleday, Gen. Reynolds being in command of the right wing, comprising the First, Third, Eleventh and Twelfth Corps.
When some three miles from town, and while quietly marching along, the sound of heavy and rapid cannon firing was heard coming from the direction beyond Gettysburg. Almost at the same instant Captain Mitchell, a gallant aid upon Gen. Reynold's staff, came dashing down the road with orders to the various division commanders, to push forward their divisions as rapidly as possible. The order was given to double-quick, which was instantly obeyed, and kept up until the intervening space, where our batteries were engaged, was passed over. These batteries, two in number, were a part of the artillery belonging to Gen. Buford's division, and were stationed some half a mile to the south of the Gettysburg Theological Seminary, while the opposing forces were stationed and snugly entrenched upon the east side of Marsh Creek, and about the same distance from the Seminary as were our own troops.
The latter was the first to open fire, and were for a time compelling our batteries to retire from their position. This they were quietly doing and in good order, when the division of Gen. Wadsworth came to their support, the two able regiments, the Second Wisconsin and Twenty-fourth Michigan, rushing up and driving from in front of them the infantry force who were making desperate efforts to capture the pieces. When these supports arrived, the batteries again took up a commanding position, which they were enabled to hold during the day.
In rear of the position so taken up, and to the right, the division of Gen. Wadsworth were drawn up in line of battle, with the division of Gen. Robinson holding the second line. At the moment that these formations were completed, the rebels, emboldened by their partial success in driving from position the batteries, attempted another charge, with the object of seizing the pieces, when the brigades of the Second division, with fixed bayonets, made a charge upon them, and such as were not killed were taken prisoners. Two entire regiments--a Tennessee and Mississippi regiment--were then "bagged."
Immediately after the arrival and going into position of the First Corps, the Eleventh, under the able and brave Gen. Howard, who had been in the rear and marching on the same road as the First, made their appearance, marched directly through the town, and at once formed a line of battle on the right of the Chambersburg road, and some half a mile west of the College, which is located at the extreme end of the town. After some three hours of artillery dueling, the rebels commenced to retire. There were massed the two infantry corps, and in this formation a pursuit of their retreating column was commenced.
After driving them back toward the mountain, something over a mile, soon after four o'clock it was discovered that with an extensive force of infantry and cavalry they were endeavoring to turn our left flank, with a view, probably, to get between us and our supply trains. Upon this being noticed, and it being evident that our reinforcements, the Third and Twelfth Corps, who had been anxiously inquired after during the entire day, were not yet up, no alternative was offered us than to retire to the east of the town and take up a better position upon the top of a hill, and along the line of road leading to Emmettsburg. This was done, but in admirable order, no unusual haste being apparent, while, at the same time, all ammunition and supply wagons as were up to the front were sent to the rear.
A little after 4 o'clock, the Third Corps, under command of Gen. Sickles, came upon the field, and went into position upon the left of that field early in the morning by the First Corps; the Twelfth, under Gen. Slocum, as well arrived about the same time, and were stationed upon the right of the Eleventh Corps. After these two corps, as well as those who "had borne the heat and burden of the day" were formed in "battle array," they made an advance, and but with little resistance succeeded in driving the rebels from the town, and back into the positions they first occupied early in the morning. In this manner and in these locations both armies are resting for the night.
The Battles of Thursday and Friday.
From the Herald's account we condense the following details of the great battles of Thursday and Friday at Gettysburg:
On Thursday evening the enemy sought to gain possession of the hills south of Gettysburg, held by the Third Corps, under Sickles. The attacking force was composed of Longstreet's and Hill's Corps, consisting of the brigades of Graham, Ward and De Trobriand and the heroes of Chancellorsville, with Clark's New Jersey battery, were first in position, and were compelled to meet the first assault alone and unsupported, although completely overwhelmed, and subjected to a fire of musketry and artillery that never was equaled in this or any other war. This latter division held their ground bravely, and fought as veterans only can fight; but they could not be expected to stand long against such fearful odds, and soon were forced to fall back. They were then joined by Sykes' division of the Fifth Corps, and Humphrey's of the Third, Berry's old division, formerly Hooker's; and being heavily re-inforced with artillery, again advanced and renewed the contest. The enemy deployed regiment after regiment, gradually extending his lines along the base of the hills on our flanks.
Arrival of the Old Sixth Corps.
At this time the [illegible] Sixth Corps [remainder of sentence illegible]. As the enemy pushed his way across the ridge, they were enabled to open an enfilading fire upon him that determined the fate of the day. Not expecting this fire when they received it, they were thrown into the wildest disorder and fell back in confusion.
The Pennsylvania Reserves then advanced and took possession of the mountain crests, which terminated the fighting for that day; and left us masters of the situation; but in gaining this advantage we had made great sacrifices. Our men had been compelled literally to charge up to the cannon's mouth to contend against vastly superior numbers. On all sides our losses were very heavy, and the proportion of field and general officers that fell was beyond precedent. It was in this deadly struggle that Gen. Sickles was wounded, and also General Graham of the same Corps, and here, too, Generals Zook and Weed both sacrificed their lives, leading their respective commands up to the fight.
Preparations for Friday's Battle.
During Thursday night our army was all brought up, and most desirably disposed by Gen. Meade for the apprehended battle of Friday. At midnight a council of war was held, at which it was determined that the enemy would probably renew the attack at daylight, on the following morning, and that for that day we had better act purely on the defensive. Dispositions were therefore made with this view for the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps to hold the right, with reinforcements of fresh troops expected during the day to act as a reserve; the First and Second the centre, and the Fifth and Sixth the left, with the Third as a reserve.
Formation of the Line.
The line was formed in this manner during the night, the left resting on the mountains between the Taneytown and Emmittsburg roads, and the left at the base of the mountain, opposite the Cemetery Hill; the line encircling the Cemetery and embracing the upper portion of the town. Our artillery on Cemetery Hill was largely reinforced from the artillery reserve, and earthworks thrown up in front of it. Batteries were also planted on all the commanding positions within the lines, and such of the reserve as was not thus disposed of was held for use in the field where and as occasion demanded it. The dispositions were most admirable made, and reflected the highest credit on the commanding General.
During the night Ewell was removed from the rebel right to the left, against our right. The action commenced at daylight, and soon grew furious. The base of the range of hills held by our troops is precipitous, and up the steep slopes the rebel columns were pushed against a fierce artillery fire.
Artillery in Full Force.
We had more artillery at work than I have known at any time in the operations of this army. The enemy, too, had a large number of batteries at work, in different localities, throwing principally solid shot, with which they endeavored most faithfully to silence our batteries. Thus the roar or cannon was unparalleled, drowning completely the less noisy though no less continuous rattle of musketry that raged along the line. The demonstration was grand and awful. Not less than three hundred cannon were belching forth their thunders, while nearly two hundred thousand muskets were being discharged as rapidly as men hurried with excitement and passion could load and discharge them.
Arrival of Reinforcements.
At this critical juncture, when our right was sorely pressed and the fate of the day seemed wavering, a considerable portion of fresh troops arrived and were immediately put into line on the right. Where these reinforcements came from, or what they were, I have been unable to learn. They were raw recruits, wearing untarnished uniforms, and bearing arms that were unsullied by use.--But they wheeled into line like veterans. I only relate the general result--we drove the enemy back with terrible slaughter. The woods on the steep slope of that lofty mountain are crowded with mangled corpses to tell of the fierceness of the contest, and in their piles of fallen men, alike national and rebel troops intermixed, fought like heroes. Their coming was fortunate, and their aid determined the event of the battle. No sooner did they commence their work than the enemy commenced to fall back, and from that moment we steadily crowded them until falling back became retreat, and retreat a rout.
Operations of the Fifth Army Corps.
The Fifth Army Corps, General Sykes commanding, has had its share in the great battles fought in front of Gettysburg and the noble victories won. When Wednesday's fight began we were at Union Mills, twenty-three miles from here. We marched all that night, and at daybreak on Thursday were on the battle field. Notwithstanding this long march and no sleep, and a march of twenty-nine miles the day before, the men were in the finest spirits and ready to fight. The men were held in reserve until three P.M., on Thursday, when the rebels endeavored to turn our left.
Gen. Barnes' division was sent to counteract this movement, with orders from General Sykes to take his position on the right of the base of Rock Hill, two miles to the left of where they had been lying. When the order came the enemy was making this point the centre of his attack. At double-quick the entire column pressed forward. Battery C, lst New York, Capt. Burnes, and Battery I, 5th U. S. Artillery, Lt. Watson, were already in position, throwing shells into the woods at the base of the hill. From the enemy's batteries came responsive shells, some of which fell among our men, killing and injuring several.
The rebel charge threatened for a time to shake the division, but the personal efforts of Col. Vincent held it firm, until a minnie ball broke his thigh.
Desperate Courage of Our Officers.
Colonel Rice took command of the brigade, and still the work of attack, and resistance, and death was going on. A few minutes developed many heroes. How can I name all? Officers seized the guns and cartridge boxes of dead privates and hurled death and defiance into the ranks of their assailants. Colonels seized their regimental colors, and by the magic of their valor, kept their men from retiring. All the brigades were jointly working to hold the position. Colonel Sweitzer showed the same coolness and bravery in handling his brigade as at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. Colonel Tilson was pre-eminently heroic and self-possessed, and Colonel Rice inspirited his brigade with like enthusiasm as that inspirited by Colonel Vincent, while the staff of all did their duty with soldierly fearlessness. Gen. Barnes had his leg grazed by the passing fragment of a shell; Dr. Shiffler, Division Surgeon had his face blackened with the powder of a bursting bomb, and Captain Barnard, Inspector General, the rim of his hat torn off. The rebels rushed right into the midst of our men in the Fourth and Sixty-second Pennsylvania regiments. It was for a time through our counter-scarp of bayonets. It was a hand to hand conflict.
Real Fighting with Bayonets.
It was from a bayonet thrust that Colonel Jefferds fell. It was in the thickest of the fight. A rebel officer had seized the regimental colors. Col. Jefferds shot the rebel officer dead with his revolver, took the colors in his own hand, reared them aloft and cried out. "Rally round the flag, boys." A rebel bayonet pierced his vitals and he fell dead, his hand still firmly clutching the flagstaff. The man at whose hands he lost his life a moment after lay gasping in death. A bullet from Major Hall's revolver had entered his brain. Conspicuous for gallantry in this hand to hand conflict was Captain Robinson.
Tremendous Fury of the Conflict.
The conflict raged with fierce and unyielding fury half an hour. The brave Major Lowry, of the Sixty-second Pennsylvania, had been killed and many Captains and Lieutenants lay dead and dying on the field. The bodies of privates are strewn on the ground and in the crevices of the rocks. Col. Prescott had recieved [sic] five wounds, marvelously escaping death.
Gen. Sykes' old division, Brigadier Gen. Ayers commanding, came to the rescue of the First Division. A few moments more and our left must inevitably have been turned.
Battery D, Fifth U. S. Artillery (General Griffin's old battery,) Lieut. Hazlett commanding, and the Third Massachusetts batterp, [sic] Lieut. Walcott, came to our aid. The groups of the First and Second divisions fought side by side. They never fought with greater or more unflinching courage.
At six p.m. while the battle was at its height the First and Fifth brigades of the Pennsylvania Reserve corps, recently wedded to the corps, and under command of General Crawford, and respectively commanded by Colonels M'Candless and Frick, were ordered to drive the enemy from Rock Hill. This so called hill, is in magnitude a small mountain and the base was mainly the scene of battle thus described. It is covered with woods interspersed by huge rocks, which grow in size and rigidness as one nears the crest. Its summit commands an extended view of the battle field and the country for miles around. It was a good point of observation and commanding an effective position for artillery.
To the hill, up the hill, and on top of the hill the column pressed its way. It was a post of struggle, of peril, of death, to many. The Bucktails, of bravest memory in many great battles, went ahead as skirmishers. The enemy was compelled to retreat before our advance. Our gallant Pennsylvanians would not be driven back. General Crawford took in his own hands the colors of the First Reserve regiment, whose color bearer had been shot down, and carried it till the crest was reached. The men followed fearlessly that flag. General Crawford calling out to them, "Don't let the Bucktails beat you."
Ascending the Summit.
As the summit was nearly reached, Col. Taylor of the Bucktails, was shot and fell at the head of his regiment. Undismayed by the death of their gallant leader, the Bucktails moved forward and re-formed. On the hill-top they captured three hundred prisoners. In a few moments Hazlett's battery was on the crest, hurling grape and canister among the retreating enemy who now fled down the hill in the wildest confusion.
When the gallant general fell his staff ran to his assistance and bore him off the field. He was struck just below the knee by a shell, and his leg so badly shattered that it hung merely by a shred. He was carried to a wheat field in the rear, where amputation was performed under the influence of chloroform.
The loss of blood, combined with the effects of the chloroform and his previous physical prostration, caused him to remain insensible for some time, but on rallying he discovered your correspondent and recognized him with a "God bless you," and gain [sic] sank away. Rallying again, he looked in my face and said feebly, "Cook, in this war a man is but a cipher. God rules and directs all for the best."
The Bravery of Our Troops.
We cannot refrain from keeping steadily in our mind, nor can we keep from alluding to the splendid behavior of our troops during the past four days of incessant engagement with a desperate and determined enemy greatly outnumbering them. With the exception of but one single corps, two brigades of which, however, are entitled to credit, a corps which for the sake of its excellent commander we do not care to mention too harshly, our army have well and nobly performed their parts. The brilliant bayonet charges, where cold steel clashed with cold steel; the many sallies from the slight fortifications, and rushing against the enemy aimed a perfect torrent of shot and shell, grape and canister, are too numerous to be speedily mentioned, but are worth to be classed with the much-talked-of and world-renowned charge of the celebrated six hundred at Balaklava. Nobly have they battled for the cause of freedom, while the blood which has been spilled will still stronger cement the bonds of union, under which we have grown and prospered for nearly a century, while the name of the heroes of Gettysburg will ever be handed down to posterity by the side of those who fought, bled and died at Bunker Hill, Monmouth and Lexington.
Order Before Battle.
Headquarters Army of the Potomac, June 30, 1863.--The commanding General requests that previous to the engagement soon expected with the enemy, corps and all other commanding officers address their troops, explaining to them the immense issues involved in the struggle. The enemy is now on our soil. The whole country looks anxiously to this army to deliver it from the presence of the foe. Out failure to do so will leave us no such welcome as the swelling of millions of hearts with pride and envy at our army. Homes, firesides and domestic altars are involved. The army has fought well heretofore. It is believed that it will fight more desperately and bravely than ever if it is addressed in fitting terms. Corps and other commanders are authorized to order the instant death of any soldier who fails to do his duty at this hour.
By command of Maj. Gen. Meade.
Headquarters Army of the Potomac
Near Gettysburg, July [illegible]
The Commanding General, in behalf of the country, thanks the Army of the Potomac for the glorious result of the recent operations.
An enemy superior in numbers and flushed with the pride of a successful invasion attempted to overcome or destroy the army.
Utterly baffled and defeated, he has now withdrawn from the contest.
The privations and fatigues which the army has endured, and the heroic courage and gallantry it has displayed, will be matters of history to be ever remembered.
Our task is not yet accomplished, and the Commanding General looks to the army, for greater effort to drive from our soil every vestige of the presence of the invader.
It is right and proper that we should, on a suitable occasion, return our grateful thanks to the Almighty Disposer of Events that in the goodness of His Providence He has thought fit to give victory to the cause of the just. By command of
Major eGneral [sic] Meade.
(signed.) S. Williams.
The New Commander.
Major General George G. Meade, the new commander of the Army of the Potomac, was born in Spain, about the year 1815, of American parents. His father was at the time of his birth a very wealthy man, and was residing in Barcelona, Spain, where Captain Meade, now commanding the North Carolina, and the subject of our sketch, were born. The two boys were brought to this country; one was educated for the navy, which he entered in 1826, and the other for the army.
George C. Meade entered West Point Military Academy as an appointee from the State of Pennsylvania during September, 1831, and graduated on the 30th of June, 1885, standing number nineteen in his class, which has produced such men as Generals Morel, Naglee, Haupt, Partick, Martindale, Roberts, and others, as well as Postmaster General Montgomery, Blair, &c.
He was appointed to the army from the District of Columbia and entered the service as brevet second lieutenant of the 3rd Artillery on the first of July, 1824. On the 16th of October, 1835, he resigned his connection with the United States army and was engaged in private pursuits until 1842.
On the 19th day of May, 1842, he was reappointed to the United States service as a second lieutenant of Topographical Engineers. In this capacity he joined the troops engaged in the Mexican war. At this time we find the names of his companions in the Topographical Engineer corps were Major Turnbull, Captains Wm. G. Williams, killed at Monterey; Geo. H. Hughes, John McClellan, Thos. B. Luinard, and Joseph E. Johnston (now a rebel general); First Lieutenants Wm. H. Emory (now a General), Jacob E. Blake (killed in Mexico), L. Sitgreaves, W. H. Warner (killed by Indians), E. P. Scammon (now General), and C. N. Hagar; Second Lieutenants John C. Fremont, J. D. Webster, George Thorn, Martin L. Smith, John Pope (now General), Wm. B. Franklin (now General), and Wm. J. Peck.
His conduct in Mexico was marked by determination and bravery, and at the battle of Palo Alto he was particularly distinguished, and so mentioned in the official reports. During the several conflicts of Monterey, 21st 22d, and 23d days of September, 1846, he again became distinguished, and for his bravery was breveted a first lieutenant, to date from September 23, 1846. During the month of August, 1851, he was promoted to a first lieutenancy of his corps, and on the 19th of May, 1856, was further promoted to a captaincy, which rank he held at the breaking out of the rebellion.
When the rebellion broke out, and President Lincoln called for three hundred thousand volunteers, the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps was raised and placed under the charge of Gen. McCall, as division commander, and Generals Reynolds, Meade, and Ord as brigade commanders. Each of these brigade commanders has nobly distinguished himself during the present war, having all risen to a rank equal with a marshal of France. Gen. Meade was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers, with a commission to date from August 31, 1861. He was then placed in charge of the Second brigade of that division, and proceeded to organize it at Tennallytown, near the waters of the Potomac, and in this vicinity wintered during 1861-62.
June 18, 1862, he was promoted to a majority in the Engineer corps, which rank he still holds in the newly organized Engineer Corps of the regular army.
On the 26th of June, 1862, he took part in the famous battle of Mechanicsville, where Gen. Stonewall Jackson made such a terrible dash upon Gen. McClellan's right wing, and Gens. McCall, Reynolds, and others were taken prisoners. His noble conduct and bravery on this occasion were particularly noticed.
The next day he was engaged under Gen. Fitz John Porter in the battle of Gaines' Mill, and was so distinguished that he was nominated for a brevet of lieutenant colonel for distinguished services during that battle. He also took part in some of the subsequent engagements of the seven days' fight.
At the battle of New Market Cross Roads he was severely wounded, but, under skillful treatment, he recovered, and almost immediately returned to the army, where he took command of the division until the return of Generals McCall and Reynolds from captivity in Richmond.
When the rebels invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, after the defeats of General Pope's army, General Reynolds, who had commanded the division, was then detached to organize the Pennsylvania militia, and General Meade was placed in command of the division of Pennsylvania Reserves. He led these troops during the eventfully battles of South Mountain and Antietam, and when at the latter battle, Gen. Hooker was wounded and had to leave the field, Gen. Meade for a short time had charge of the Ninth army corps, formerly under Gen. Reno.
After Gen. Burnside had been placed in charge of the Army of the Potomac, Gen. Reynolds, who formerly commanded the Pennsylvania Reserves, after the retirement of Gen. McCall, was ordered to command the whole of the 1st Army Corps, and Gen. Meade was formally placed in command of the division of Pennsylvania Reserves. At the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, he greatly distinguished himself and his division lost very heavily; the brigade commanders and several field officers being placed hors de combat during the attack on the rebel right. The whole loss of the division was 1,624, being the greatest division loss during the whole of that disastrous fight.
On the 15th of December, 1862, two days after this eventful battle, he was ordered to command the 6th Army Corps, formerly under Gen. Fits John Porter and more recently under Gen. Butterfield. To enable him properly to hold the position he was appointed by the President and was regularly nominated to the Senate during January 1863. The Senate making certain objections to the list of appointments, it was revised, and Gen. Meade's name[illegible] sent in by the President. During [illegible] 1863, the Senate, in executive session confirmed the appointment and Gen. Meade took his rank and commission as major general of United States volunteers, from November 29, 1862, and assumed the command of the 5th Army Corps.
When Gen. Hooker assumed command of the Army of the Potomac, and reorganized the same, he still continued to retain General Meade as the commander of the 5th Army Corps, Gen. Butterfield having obtained a position on the staff of the commanding officer. In general orders, dated February 5, 1863, Gen. Meade's name and command is specified accordingly.
During the advance upon Chancellorsville, Gen. Meade's corps formed part of the right wing of Hooker's army. The corps started on its march on the 26th day of April, 1863, and arrived at Kelly's Ford on the 28th. The next day it crossed the Rappahannock by that ford, and the Rapidan by Ely's Ford. It then pushed on to Chancellorsville, where it arrived on the 30th, and engaged the skirmishers of the rebels, taking their rifle pits and temporary works.
Gen. John Fulton Reynolds.
The first great sacrifice in the defense of Pennsyluania [sic] is one of her own distinguished and gallant soldiers--Major Gen. John Fulton Reynolds. He fell on Wednesday morning last, July 1st, near Gettysburg, in the opening of the campaign against the invaders of his native State, and so near to his immediate home that the reports of his guns might have been heard by his sorrowing neighbors.
General Reynolds was born in Lancaster, and at the age of seventeen entered the West Point Military Academy as a cadet. He graduated in 1841, when just twenty-one years old, receiving a commission as brevet Second Lieutenant in the Third Artillery. When the Mexican War broke out he was a First Lieutenant in the same regiment, and while serving in that rank won the brevets of Captain and Major, for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Monterey and Buena Vista. Subsequently he was aid-de-camp to General Wool. In 1855 he was promoted to a full captaincy in his regiment, and served with great distinction in the severe battles with the Oregon Indians, in 1856.
On the 20th of August, 1861, Captain Reynolds was promoted to the tank of Brigadier General of Volunteers, and took command of one of the three brigades of the Pennsylvania Reserves under Gen. McCall, the other two being under the command of General Meade, who now heads the Army of the Potomac, and General Ord, who has just relieved General McClelland at Vicksburg. With that noble division General Reynolds took part in nearly all the great battles in Virginia, except the disaster at Bull Run. Having gone down to the Peninsula, and marched to the front at Richmond, he was posted with his brigade on the extreme right, and with McCall and Meade, bore the brunt of the first great onslaught on McClellan's army, on the 26th of June, 1863 at Mechanicsville. He took part in all of the seven days battles except Malvern, and the General McCall he was taken prisoner and removed to the city of Richmond. During all those terrible conflicts General Reynolds was distinguished for his courage, skill and brilliant fighting. After his return from Richmond he took command of the whole Division of Pennsylvania Reserves, and led them through their terrible fighting in the disastrous campaign of General Pope. The casualties in "Reynold's Division" in those battles show how bravely they fought, and how resolutely their gallant commander resisted the fiery assaults of Jackson, Ewell and Longstreet. Immediately after the close of that campaign General Reynolds was called to the command of the fifty thousand militia summoned by Governor Curtin for the defense of Pennsylvania, in September, 1862, in which service he earned and received the thanks of this Commonwealth.
When Lee retreated across the Potomac, General Reynolds being no longer required for the defense of Pennsylvania, he rejoined his command and marched with it through Virginia to Fredericksburg. Here he was advanced to the command of the First Army Corps, having in the meantime been promoted to the rank of Major-General. He led that corps in the bloody and terrific assaults made on the Rebel fortifications at Fredericksburg, on the 13th of December, 1862, and also in General Hooker's Chancellorsville campaign.
In all these various grades of service, from fighting his battery of artillery, as a Lieutenant, at Monterey and Buena Vista, to leading a brigade and then a division, and finally marshaling an army corps on the field of battle, General Reynolds always won distinction, and proved himself to be a brave, thorough, accomplished and intrepid soldier. He was just as thorough a gentleman.
We have yet but few particulars of the fight in which he fell, but when they shall come to hand we feel assured that they will prove that General Reynolds met his death from chivalrous exposure of his person, while too eagerly seeking the invaders of his native State. His death comes at a critical hour for his country. May she find as true, as brave, and skillful a soldier to take his vacant place.
Gen. Lee's Plans.
[From the Richmond Enquirer, July 2.]
Gen. Lee's army has occupied without resistance, the flourishing town of York, the centre and capital of a great county which is the garden of Pennsylvania situated on the railroad on which Baltimore depends for its supplies, and within fifty miles of that city, almost due north. The intelligence of the capture of Harrisburg is not confirmed, and was at least premature.
The plans of Lee are still a secret to our enemies as well as to ourselves; whether he means to strike for Philadelphia or for Baltimore, and in either case to cut off the railroad communication of Washington with the North, as he has already with the West, whether his intention be to establish himself quietly in the richest part of the Keystone State, and make its fertile valleys support his army until he can force Hooker to a battle, perhaps in front of the fortifications of Washington. All this remains a matter of conjecture for the present. One thing, however, is plain: Gen Lee's movements are directed not to indiscriminate plunder and devastation, but to the winning of victory; and victory will leave all Maryland and the best part of Pennsylvania absolutely in his power, to levy regular contributions upon the country, to burn or to ransom the towns and cities at his pleasure, to free Maryland and Baltimore, and strike a blow right at the enemy's head in Washington.
It is true the enemy's country deserves no consideration at our hands; to leave it all one waste like the Stony Arabia would be only fitting retribution, but the natural desire to bring home to the foe some portion of that desolation which he has visited upon us must, for the present, give way to the necessities of strategy. In the meantime our good Confederate boys are living like the sons of kings. We wish them a very good appetite, and only apprehend that they will not with to come back to us at all. They will want to settle in that land flowing with milk and honey, where our rose- colored notes will buy six times as much as they do at home, and where men use sugar with their coffee, and coffee with their sugar.
The Whig says:
The terror of the enemy at the approach of our troops is just as guilt and cowardice should have been expected to manifest at the prospect of punishment. They know that their invasions of us have been attended by the most shocking barbarities and outrages, and they naturally expect retaliation proportionate to [illegible] We sincerely trust that they may not be disappointed. They have chosen to disregard all the humanities of war; substitute the torch for the word; to incite our own slaves to the hellish work of massacre; to make war upon non-combatants upon women and children--the old and the infirm; to openly avow the purpose of destroying the means of subsistence, and creating famine and starvation, and although we cannot retaliate precisely in all respects, yet we can teach them the sharpness and bitterness of a war waged in this spirit, and make them repent in the agony of their suffering the enormous wickedness of which they have been guilty. If General Lee gets Yankeedom fairly on the rack, he should not stay his hand till every sinew in his monstrous carcass is snapped and every bone broken. Men are sometimes made the instruments of Heaven's vengeance; and in punishing such atrocious crimes as have marked this war, in the only way in which they can be adequately punished, and their repetition prevented, it could not be [illegible] that he was doing the work of Him who has said, 'Vengeance is mine.'"[sic]
For what purpose, asks the Savannah Republican is our army marching into the enemy's country? Is it to give the Yankees a taste of war; to inflict upon them, in some measure at least, the terrible calamities which they have scattered broadcast through every portion of our country where they have been able to gain a foothold, or is it that [illegible] feed our army, forage our horses, keep guard for a time around the Yankee cities and towns, and they retire to our side of the line? Is it child's play that we are at, or is it war: war, real, earnest, terrible, such as shall humble our vainglorious foe, destroy his power for harm, and bring him to our feet for peace?
There is one thing too evident to be questioned. We have, from the beginning of this revolution, looked more to the opinion of their world, and acted with reference to "what 'Mrs. Grundy' would say," than for the success of our arms and the safety and welfare of our people. Pray what has public opinion benefitted us in this war? Has it raised an arm in our defence or extorted a word of sympathy from any Government abroad? Has it in any way helped us to fight our battles and secure our independence? On the contrary. Has it not positively militated against us, and the neutrality of the world proved under the circumstances a powerful obstacle in our path, and a direct aid to the enemy? Nothing is more evident, and yet we are allowing ourselves to be deterred from duty to ourselves by such flimsy considerations as the ever-changing opinions of nations and men. It is a great mistake, and has proved a fatal one to us thus far in our struggle.
We hope, then , that the leaders of our armies will do away with all this sickly sentimentality, and go into the war in real dreadful earnest. Let Yankee cities burn and their field be laid waste. The real native population of the North will never feel its hardship until we carry fire and sword to their own hearthstones. In this way alone can we counterbalance the profits of the war and bring them to their senses.--Charleston Mercury.
(Column 6)Summary: General Tyler bids goodbye to his troops, and asks that they continue to live in a manner that deserves respect, including arriving home in a sober state.
Description of Page: The page includes advertisements.
(Column 1)Summary: The Repository reports political news of interest, including: Democrats' nominations and conventions in various counties; the "Little Slavery Delaware" passed resolutions in support of the Lincoln Administration; and coverage of the Democratic State Convention, in which George W. Woodward received the nomination for governor and Hon Walter H. Lowrie the nomination for Supreme Justice.
(Column 1)Summary: Reports that Gov. Curtin and General W. W. Irwin arrived in Chambersburg from Gettysburg on July 13.The Situation
(Column 1)Summary: States that there have been no general engagements between Generals Meade and Lee. It is up to Meade--who is on Lee's front--to determine when the encounter will occur.The Supremacy Of Law
(Column 2)Summary: The editors encourage dutiful observance and respect of the laws of the country. The editors complain of the resistance by many to the draft or enlistment for a war that will preserve the "sanctity of government, the immutability of law."Union State Convention
(Column 3)Summary: Reports that the Union state convention has been postponed until the state is free of rebels. The editors suggest a number of men for the position of governor, but urge that Curtin--despite his disinclination due to poor health--should run again.The Progress Of The War
(Column 3)Summary: The editors list changes since the beginning of the war, including the restoration of Western Virginia, Missouri, and Maryland, almost all of Kentucky, Florida, Louisiana, and various penetrations of Union troops into Confederate land.The Pennsylvania Reserves
(Column 4)Summary: The Repository provides a detailed account of the brave acts of the Pennsylvania Reserves and praises their leaders.
Origin of Article: The Philadelphia InquirerEditorial Comment: "The remnant of the heroic Pennsylvania Reserves surpassed, if possible, their accustomed gallantry, at Gettysburg, under the lead of their youthful commander, General S. W. Crawford. The Philadelphia Inquirer of Monday thus records the achievements of this justly famed division:"
Full Text of Article:Fernando Wood
The remnant of the heroic Pennsylvania Reserves surpassed, if possible, the accustomed gallantry, at Gettysburg, under the lead of their youthful commander, Gen. S. W. Crawford. The Philadelphia Inquirer of Monday thus records the achievements of this justly famed division:
"All will remember that the battle of Thursday was mainly an overwhelming attack of the enemy on the left of our position, and that the brunt of the assault was borne for several hours by the Third Corps, under Sickles, which was at last compelled to give way. He was literally overwhelmed. Then the Fifth Corps and parts of others were moved in, but a portion of the Fifth was turned and driven back, and disaster was imminent. The retreating column came pressing back on the Reserves when Gen. Crawford, seizing a color, rode up and down the line of his Division, keeping his men steady until the way was clear, when he ordered a charge on the advancing and almost victorious enemy. This was executed by the brigade of Col. McCandless and the Ninth regiment of Col. Fisher's brigade. Led by those gallant officers in person, they charged and drove back the enemy when victory was just within their grasp, prevented them from gaining the hills, where our left would have been turned, and where they in a few moments more would have been in amongst our trains and in our rear. This charge was witnessed by a large number of our officers, who attest its priceless value, and we have no hesitation in declaring that it saved the army from defeat on that day. That high honor is due to the Reserves, and it should be given without stint.
"On Friday the brigade of Col. McCandless and the Ninth, of Fisher's, were the heroes of another gallant action. Holding the position they had so handsomely won, they were again ordered forward. Two brigades of the Rebel General Hood were in possession of the hill called the "Round Top."--These were charged, driven out and flanked by which means the trophies of the day were augmented by a stand of colors, one twelve-pounder cannon, three caissons, and one hundred prisoners. But more than that, the honor of the army was saved by the recapture of more than six thousand stands of arms, which the enemy had taken the previous day, and by the restoration to our own lines and the care of our own surgeons of an immense number of wounded men.
"The Reserves were fighting on the soil of their dear old State, and noble as were the deeds, they had done before, they were eclipsed by their conduct at Gettysburg. Their services in that important battle, and the fact that they saved the fortunes of the day at a most critical period of that battle should not be for a moment overlooked, nor should the names of General Crawford, Colonel McCandless and Colonel Fisher be omitted from the front rank of the heroes of that memorable field."
(Column 5)Summary: Reports that Fernando Wood--a Copperhead Democrat--suggested to the recent Democratic meeting in Philadelphia that the war be stopped. He also denounced the arrest of Vallandigham and urged the peace movement to move forward.[No Title]
(Column 5)Summary: The editors call attention to the quota of troops (840) asked of Franklin by the Proclamation of the Governor, and urge that the men of the county comply with the crucial demand.[No Title]
(Column 5)Summary: Mentions that the newly repaired Northern Central Railroad is now running trains regularly both to Baltimore and to Gettysburg over the Hanover branch.[No Title]
(Column 6)Summary: Reports that the new state of West Virginia recently elected its first State officers: Arthur L. Boreman as Governor and J. L. Boyers as Secretary of State.[No Title]
(Column 6)Summary: The Repository reports amendments to the Constitution proposed by the Pennsylvania legislature. The amendments provide voting for soldiers in service and certain restrictions upon the mode of legislation.
Description of Page: The page includes advertisements.
The Invasion Ended! Lee Retreats Across The Potomac!
(Column 1)Summary: Details Lee's retreat across the Potomac on July 13.
Full Text of Article:The Capture of Vicksburg
The Invasion Ended!
Lee Retreats Across the Potomac
His Army Terribly Shattered!
Loss of Much of his Baggage!
Chambersburg, July 14--2 P.M.
Official information has just been received at the head-quarters of Gen. Couch that Gen. Lee completed his pontoon bridge at Williamsport yesterday, and crossed his entire army over the Potomac last night.
Most of his artillery was got over safely, but considerable of his baggage and a number of his horses were lost in the river. Part of his army and trains forded the river, so great was Lee's haste to retreat, and the loss of wagons and horses was heavy.
Gen. Kilpatrick entered Williamsport this morning with his Cavalry, and the entire line of the Potomac is now held by the Union troops.
Thus ends the second and last rebel Invasion. Gen. Lee came upon loyal soil this time with the finest army the so-called Confederacy ever possessed, and it retreats upon its own desolated soil with its columns broken, its numbers reduced nearly if not quite one-half, by deaths, wounds, captures and desertions in the brief space of thirty days!
During his fatal campaign the rebel stronghold of the West, Vicksburg, has fallen, and he retraces his steps to find the armed traitors of the South smitten by the avenging sword of Justice at every point!
The day dawns brightly upon the Old Republic! After two years of mingled disaster and indecisive triumphs, He who declared "Vengeance is Mine," has interposed to stay the bloody, relentless tide of treason, and to preserve to us and to posterity the Free Institutions of the Western World! Let Him be praised!
(Column 1)Summary: The Repository provides a detailed account of the capture of Vicksburg and miscellaneous news from Washington.Died
(Column 4)Summary: On July 11, near Grindstone Hill, William, son of John and Barbara Apple, died at the age 1 year, 7 months, and 18 days.In Organizing The Troops
(Names in announcement: William Apple, John Apple, Barbara Apple)
(Column 5)Summary: The Repository lists the quotas of every county in Pennsylvania, totaling 60,000 troops, for ninety-day enlistments.Invalid Corps
(Column 6)Summary: The Repository advertises the existence of the Invalid Corps for men who have been honorably discharged due to wounds or disease and who would like to re-enter service.
Description of Page: The page includes advertisements.
Brief War Items
(Column 1)Summary: The Repository reports various pieces of war information, including the wounding and recovery of General Sherman, a recent fight at Helena Ark., praise for the black troops fighting at New Orleans, and the important note that drafted men are entitled to the same allowance, pay and bounty as volunteers.
Description of Page: The page includes advertisements and train schedules.
Description of Page: The page includes advertisements.
(Column 1)Summary: Mentions that Major Couch arrived at his headquarters in Chambersburg to organize an Army corps for the defense of Pennsylvania. The article includes a history of his career.Heroic Officers
(Column 1)Summary: Praises two officers, Captain Wm. H. Boyd, Company C, 1st New York Cavalry and Lieutenant Charles W. Palmer, Company C, Maryland Purnell Cavalry for serving Pennsylvanians so well. Palmer is now stationed in Chambersburg.Our National Anniversary
(Column 1)Summary: On Saturday the 10th, Chambersburg celebrated the 4th of July which had been delayed due to the occupation, with the above men as participants in the exercises.
(Names in announcement: Chief Burgess Hoskinson, Captain Samuel McKesson, Captain George L. Miles, Sergeant J. Porter Brown, W. I. Cook, George W. Brewer, Wm. Stenger, W. S. EverettEsq., Rev. Mr. Forney, Rev. Mr. Dickson, Prof. Hatnick)Full Text of Article:Serenade
--The usual programme for the celebration of our National Holliday, [sic] owing to "peculiar circumstances" could not be fully observed on its late recurrence in our town. We missed the brilliant processions and joyous faces of the children of our various Sabbath Schools, and the old fishing parties and hilarious assemblages, of former years. Reb occupation of our beautiful valley and the extensive patronage of a certain character which our "Southern brethren" had bestowed for ten days previous on our people, with their constant threats of wholesale destruction of the town almost drove from our minds that we were to have a 4th of July this year in its National sense. However, Saturday morning dawned upon us with the ringing of the bells of the different churches and public buildings, and a short time before noon, the National ensign floated from a temporary pole in the centre of the Diamond. At 6 P.M. our citizens assembled in front of the Court House. Chief Burgess Hoskinson presided, assisted by those two tried soldiers, Capt's Samuel McKesson and Geo. L. Miles as Vice Presidents. Sergeant J. Porter Brown, who served gallantly in the three and nine months service, was Secretary of the meeting. The organization completed, W. I. Cook read the Declaration of Independence. This was followed by eloquent and patriotic speeches delivered by Hon. Geo. W. Brewer; Wm. Stenger and W. S. [illegible]
(Column 2)Summary: The Chambersburg Brass Band serenaded General Couch, who thanked them. Colonel McReynolds and Major McVeigh gave speeches.Franklin County
(Column 2)Summary: Reports that a dozen men from Franklin County have entered the rebel army. Two of them paid the "penalty of death." James Allison of Stuart's Cavalry was killed at Ball's cross-roads shortly before the battle of Chancellorsville. Hugh Logan, also of Stuart's Cavalry, was killed in Hagerstown as he attempted to escape.
(Names in announcement: James Allison, Hon. Wilson Reilly, Rev. Charles Boggs, Hugh Logan)Full Text of Article:Wm. S. Stenger, Esq
Franklin County has contributed probably a dozen to the rebel army, and two have paid the penalty of death. James Allison, who studied law with Hon. Wilson Reilly some eight years ago, enlisted in Stuart's Cavalry a year or more ago, and was killed at Ball's cross-roads a short time before the battle of Chancellorsville. He was shot through the temple and died instantly. This information was given by the Rev. Charles Boggs, a native of this county, but now a chaplain in the rebel army, when the rebels occupied this place. Hugh Logan, formerly of this county, was a Captain in Stuart's Cavalry, and was here with him in October last. He was overtaken in Hagerstown last Saturday by our cavalry, and in attempting to escape was shot in the back, the ball passing through the bowels. He was in Hagerstown and alive on Sunday, but no hopes were entertained of his recovery. They will no be widely regretted since they invited death by taking up arms against their government, but they, in their treason, preserved their manhood by openly espousing the traitor's cause.
(Column 2)Summary: The editors ridicule Wm. S. Stenger's faulty logic for suggesting that the county and state would vote Democrat. Stenger denies the accusation that he approached (and was snubbed) by General Jenkins, and says that these accusations will not prevent the Democratic victory in October.Personal
(Names in announcement: Wm. S. StengerEsq.)
(Column 2)Summary: Reports that numerous notable men, including Surgeon General King, were in Chambersburg recently.Caught In The Rebel Lines
(Column 1)Summary: Mentions that several citizens were caught in the rebel lines last week around Hagerstown. Most hid in Hagerstown or escaped, but Dr. Jas, Hamilton, J. P. Culbertson, J. Porter Brown, Charles Kinsler, Allen C. McGrath, Thomas McDowell, Geo. A. Kaufman, and Geo. S. Heck are reported as prisoners across the Potomac.
(Names in announcement: Rev. Jos. Clark, Geo. Watson, James Watson, John P. Culbertson, F. Winter Tritle, Wm. Clugston, Wm. Hutton, Dr. Jas. Hamilton, Jacob N. Snider, Levi D. C. Houser, Charles Kinsler, Allen C. McGrath, Thomas McDowell, Geo. A. Kaufman, Geo. S. Heck)Full Text of Article:A Deserved Appointment
--A number of our citizens were caught in the rebel lines last week about Hagerstown. Among them were Rev. Jos. Clark, James and Geo. Watson, John P. Culbertson, F. Winter Tritle, Wm. Clugston, Wm. Hutton, Dr. Jas. Hamilton, Jacob N. Snider, Levi D. C. Houser and others. Most of them secreted themselves in Hagerstown or escaped through the lines; but Messrs. Dr. Jas. Hamilton, J. P. Culbertson, J. Porter Brown, Charles Kinsler, Allen C. McGrath, Thomas McDowell, Geo. A. Kaufman and Geo. S. Heck are reported to be across the Potomac and prisoners.
(Column 2)Summary: I. N. Snively, of Chambersburg, has been appointed Assistant Surgeon, 20th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, with Colonel Thomas commanding.New Cavalry Company
(Names in announcement: Dr. I. N. Snively)
(Column 2)Summary: Reports that J. C. Hullinger, of Chambersburg, who commanded company D, 126th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, raised a new cavalry company. He left yesterday with his men for Harrisburg to report to the Adjutant General.[No Title]
(Names in announcement: Captain J. C. Hullinger)
(Column 2)Summary: States that many soldiers have been filing though the town to fulfill the governor's request for more troops. The volunteers exhibit little straggling and "truly remarkable" discipline.
(Names in announcement: )