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Valley of the Shadow

Franklin Repository: February 22, 1865

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-Page 01-

Description of Page: McClure's speech continues on page 2. The page includes advertisements, a story entitled "The Tables Turned," and anecdotes.

Don't Forget Your Girls
(Column 6)
Summary: Urges parents to educate their daughters, so that they can educate their sons. The article recounts the tale of a traveler who states that Indians perpetuate their uncivilized character by educating only their men.
Remarks of A. K. McClure
(Column 7)
Summary: Reprints A. K. McClure's speech to the Pa. House, in which he provides a history of slavery and the extent of its criminality, efforts in Pennsylvania to preserve slavery, and an argument with Purdy over treasonous statements.
(Names in announcement: A. K. McClure)

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The Extinction Of Slavery
(Column 3)
Summary: Recounts the history of several movements to end or curb slavery. The author emphasizes the obstacles to abolition and emancipation before the war, including the "helpless" of enslaved blacks caused by "Long years of oppression and neglect [which] had fitted them more for servitude than freedom." The war finally effected the death of slavery.
Full Text of Article:

In political affairs the end is not always apparent from the beginning. Both nations and statements are sometimes compelled to accept the logic of events as their instructor. The aspirations of the first are often quickened by unexpected realization, whilst the latter are content to shape that whose being they could neither forestall nor create.

How long African slavery would have existed upon this continent, had it not been for the occurrence of the stupendous civil war now drawing to a close, none can say. It might have lingered many centuries, an impediment to our civilization, a blot upon our escutcheon, a cause of disintegration, and an element of death. It might, too, in the ways of an inscrutable Being, have been taken through the process of eradication by some noiseless, gentle means, so that as scarce no man could tell whence it came, none should know whither it went. But as the great Same controls both the zephyr and the hurricane, so doth He rule in the armies of heaven and among the children of men. None can take Him to task for His agencies.

Notwithstanding the present incumbent of the Presidency had years ago declared that the States of this government could not remain permanently half free and half slave; notwithstanding his premier had declared that between the two systems--free and slave labor--there must ever be an irrepressible conflict; at the very commencement of hostilities it was authoritatively announced by both the executive and legislative branches of the government that the object of the war was solely to compel obedience to the national authority under the constitution and laws.

Thus whilst the insurgent leaders avowed the object of rebellion to be the establishment of an unrestricted system of enforced labor, the power they were about to engage as unhesitatingly disclaimed past encroachment and future interference with the unclean thing.

It may be interesting now for a moment to leave the giants interlocked--to let the strife progress--whilst we consider for a moment the probability of the eradication of slavery by other means than through the war.

Its extinction may at any time have been effected by one of three means--war, either on the part of the enslaved or by those favorable to abolition; a constitutional amendment providing for its prohibition or voluntary emancipation.

As regards voluntary emancipation, alas! the cupidity of human nature rendered it almost impossible. The evil had its origin in a love of gain. The same insatiate desire caused it to thrive. Tears and blood were no obstacle to its inhuman barters. Its advantages were reciprocal. Coffers were filled at the North, where the crack of the lash and the sigh from the block were unheard; coffers were filled at the South, where both were equally unheard. There could be no hope for voluntary emancipation when the demands of avarice never ceased to be met and the national heart was growing harder.

For the same reasons a constitutional amendment was equally out of the question. Arrayed against the progress was every sordid and selfish interest, every besotted and brutalized instinct, every debasing and unchristian sentiment. Men in their own estimation proclaimed the African as not of human kind, but allied to his own native gorilla. Even such as admitted his humanity insisted that he was accursed of God. The argument then was not confined to a street car, but they insisted upon perpetually and systematically debasing him upon earth and finally excluding him from Heaven. The aid of the highest judicial officer in the government was invoked, and it was announced from the Bench that he had no rights a white man was bound to respect. What wonder then that both voluntary and constitutional emancipation were out of the question.

But slavery had been doomed. Permitted originally for some wise purpose, it was not intended that it should have a perpetual lease, nor never be called to settle an account. The enslaved it is true were helpless. Long years of oppression and neglect had fitted them more for servitude than for freedom. Bestial masters and their allies had often paraded this as a reason why their bondage should be continued. Death they said was the best antidote for death--the virus that produced the disease should be used in its cure.

It was just here, when all hope seemed to have died out, when the heart of the lover of justice to all failed within him, that a ray of light appeared, a speck in the heavens no bigger than a man's hand. Mr. Lincoln was elected. He was about to be inaugurated. The revolution of slaveholders was begun. At first to human perception it seemed of trifling importance, easy to be quelled. The retiring President let it severely alone. It waxed strong. The new President soon found himself in the midst of a tremendous convulsion.

It is not necessary to detail events. None fail to remember how the present Chief Magistrate has from the beginning sought to win the South back by appeals to duty and patriotism--how every ulterior measure of war has been anteriorly proclaimed and opportunity afforded to return to a cast-off allegiance.

Slavery is now dying, not by the hands of those who long since favored a prohibitory constitutional amendment, not by the hands of abolitionists so called, nor by virtue entirely of the executive proclamation, but by war, cruel war, provoked and made by its friend. Had not a syllable of the emancipation proclamation been uttered the result had been all the same; for the present conflict will scarcely close before our armies shall have overrun all parts of the South and given practical freedom to the slaves.

Our own measure resorted to for the purpose of weakening the enemy is about to be adopted by him with the view of adding strength to his armies. It is proposed now in the South to put the slaves into service and manumit [sic] them for anticipated heroic efforts. It is not a matter of surprise that such a proposition meets much opposition there. Few thinking men can have faith in the idea that the negroes will fight for their oppressors under the promise of freedom when these very oppressors have failed in a contest, the object of which was by a separation from the old government to insure the permanency and enlarge the area of slavery. The idea is preposterous. It is as if a Pacific adventurer returning with his hoarded dust when shipwrecked and utterly without hope, should first cast his treasure into the yawning sea and leap into its jaws for a perpetual sleep.

Whilst slavery dies by the war as an element of strength in the rebellion, if we seek a more remote and moral reason for its extinction we find it in the prevading [sic] sentiment of patriotism and pride of nationality of the loyal North. So long as the institution did not strike directly at the vitals of the government it had its friends, but when it sought to disrupt the Union and overturn the constitution, ambition, party spirit, prejudice, cupidity, hatred of the negro--all obeyed the behests of a true patriotism and came to the rescue. The large majority of the people notwithstanding the seditious appeals of enemies of the government and rebel sympathizers, are desirous to conduct the war in such a way as will deal the hardest blows upon the enemy and most quickly and thoroughly re-establish the national authority. The result of the late election shows that the government has met the expectations of the many, whilst for its double work it has called down upon itself the benedictions of mankind.

Progress Of The War
(Column 5)
Summary: Relates the signs of the Confederacy's dissolution reported in the Raleigh Progress.
Full Text of Article:

There are manifest signs of dissolution in the dominions of treason. The Raleigh Progress confesses, in an elaborate article that the capital of that State is at the mercy of Sherman; that the last rebel legislature is now in session there, and that Charleston, Columbia, Wilmington and ultimately Richmond must be surrendered to the Union armies. Part of the prediction has already been fulfilled. Sherman entered Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, unopposed, and the Richmond papers confess that the occupation of Columbia necessitates the surrender of Charleston. The Progress adds that when Sherman does come the people of Raleigh and North Carolina will accept him as conqueror, and imitate Savannah by making the best terms possible with him. It also frankly admits that the rebel government cannot maintain the war, and that justice and humanity demand its early termination on the basis of re-union.

In the mean time Sherman is pursuing his victorious march practically unopposed. Had it been in the power of the rebels to defend Columbia and Charleston, it would have been done. If Sherman cannot be defeated in detail, how is he to be beaten when his immense army is concentrated? When he moved upon Columbia, he had two other columns operating in different directions, while Beauregard had the interior lines and could have concentrated against any one of Sherman's wings; but he failed to do so solely because he was too feeble to meet any considerable force in battle. We do not apprehend that there can be any better point at which Beauregard can give battle than the positions already surrendered. Every day's march Sherman makes brings him nearer to heavy co-operating columns. The 23d corps is in North Carolina, and must now be acting in direct support of Sherman, and soon the grand armies of Grant must be in supporting distance of each other to compass the reduction of the rebel capital.

Outside of the general aspect of military affairs, there are the strongest evidence of the dissolving strength of treason. The speech of Secretary Benjamin made recently in Richmond, admits that Richmond must be surrendered unless the slaves are put in to the field, and he admits that unless they are induced to go voluntarily by offers of freedom, they will fight against the rebels. He admits that the white population of the South now subject to the despotism of Davis, is unequal to the contest, and puts the issue squarely to the people that unless the slaves come to the rescue of traitors, the rebellion is crushed. It is most remarkable, too, that Vice President Stevens, although several times announced, has never spoken since his return from the conference at Fortress Monroe. He was understood as desiring peace before he came there; but it was freely stated that he would now take the stump and advocate the maintenance of the war at every sacrifice. But he is still reticent as ever, and seems to have retired again to allow the madness of treason to expend itself in the most wicked and hopeless war of history.

On every hand the cause of the government seems to promise decisive and early success; and we hope that the day is near at hand, when the last army of crime--that of Gen. Lee, will be compelled to seek uncertain refuge in the Cotton States, and the authority of the government be resumed in Virginia and North Carolina, as in Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana.

Major Dodge
(Column 6)
Summary: Reports the censure of Major Dodge, the Assistant Provost Marshal of Pennsylvania, by Gov. Curtin for his mistreatment of enlisted men. Curtin demands that Lincoln remove Dodge from office.
Full Text of Article:

Major Dodge, the Assistant Provost Marshal of this State, and commandant at Harrisburg, has been gravely censured by the legislature, and also by the heads of Departments connected with the military service at the capital, for wanton cruelty and shameless disregard of the wants of soldiers sent to Camp Curtin to be organized into companies. A committee of the legislature was appointed, upon the complaint of sundry soldier, to investigate the condition of affairs of Camp Curtin, and they reported that the recruits, just from their homes and not inured to the rigors of the camp, were left there without adequate shelter or protection from the excessive cold, when Maj. Dodge had not only ample authority but ample recources [sic] to supply every want of the men. The same committee, or a part of it, also confer[r]ed with Maj. Dodge on the subject, and found him entirely indifferent alike to the wants of the soldiers and the efforts of the State authorities to remedy his cruel negligence. The result was a joint resolution demanding his removal, which passed the House by an overwhelming majority, and was passed to third reading in the Senate by the decisive vote of 17 to 10, and even those who voted in the negative took especial pains to state that they did not mean to justify the conduct of Maj. Dodge.

The government is now in want of men, and particularly in need of volunteers, who can be placed in the field with much more facility than can be attained by the enforcement of the conscription. Harrisburg is the rendezvous for such volunteers, and Maj. Dodge is the commander there. One company from Lewistown--the first to respond to the call for fifty companies--tried Maj. Dodge for a day or two, and then disbanded and returned home. The next lot of volunteers that reached Camp Curtin enjoyed the luxury of standing out in the snow day and night during the excessively cold weather of two weeks ago, and had their feet and ears frozen because Maj. Dodge prefer[r]ed to have them so exposed. The result is that volunteering has been almost wholly arrested, as men do not appreciate the system of Major Dodge, whereby they are made the victims of every atrocity his ingenuity can devise. How long this state of things is to continue, the authorities at Washington must determine. Gov. Curtin has repeatedly demanded the removal of Maj. Dodge without indicating his successor or caring who he might be so that he should come prepared to discharge his duty, and the legislature, certainly in no factious spirit, has seconded the request of the Executive in the most positive manner. Will the authorities at Washington disregard these demands? If so they must prefer that Pennsylvania shall not promptly furnish volunteers to strengthen our armies. No matter who Maj. Dodge is, or who wants him here, or don't want him at the front. If he can't be used advantageously elsewhere, let him report to a pile of brick or his arm-chair at home if need be; but we submit that his insolent disregard of the wants of our volunteers shall not be perpetrated at Harrisburg to chill the ardor of our young men who are prepared to swell the ranks of our armies.

[No Title]
(Column 6)
Summary: Describes two bounty bills relating to Franklin County: a bill authorizing the collection of an additional $200 bounty paid by taxation and a bill authorizing the townships of Green and Guilford to pay $300 to drafted men.
(Names in announcement: A. K. McClure)
Harrisburg. Franklin County Bounty Bills. Bounties to Drafted New To Green and Guilford--Removal of Major Dodge Demanded
(Column 7)
Summary: "Horace" reports on the Franklin County bounty bills and the joint resolution demanding the removal of Major Dodge.
Trailer: "Horace"
Washington. March of Gen. Sherman--Congress--Important Bills yet to be passed--Deaths of Senator Hicks--Murder in a Hotel--Re-Arrest of Baltimore and Washington Merchants, &c., &c.
(Column 7)
Summary: Lists the important bills waiting for consideration, including the internal revenue bill, bankrupt bill, and army and navy appropriations bills.

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Description of Page: The page includes advertisements.

A Memorial
(Column 1)
Summary: Provides a biography of Robert Earley, formerly of Franklin, who served as chief clerk of the Registrar's office and served the Union as a soldier.
(Names in announcement: Robert Earley)
Deserter Record
(Column 2)
Summary: Announces the intention to publish a list of deserters and non-appearing drafted men for 1863 and 1864.
On Furlough
(Column 2)
Summary: Reports that John D. Foster, a former member of the Repository staff and member of Co. C, 19th Regiment Veteran Reserve Corps, is coming home for a visit. He originally enlisted with the 140th New York.
(Names in announcement: John D. Foster)
(Column 2)
Summary: Announces a lecture by Conrad given at the Methodist church.
(Names in announcement: Rev. Dr. Conrad)
Accident To Col. Spear
(Column 2)
Summary: Reports the injury to Col. Spear, of the 11th Cavalry. His horse fell on him, causing internal injuries.
(Names in announcement: Col. Spear)
(Column 2)
Summary: Prints Kingsbury's letter thanking the Ladies' Aid Society for their donations.
Editorial Comment: "Lieut. Kingsbury on behalf of his company, makes the following acknowledgement of mittens received from the Ladies' Aid Society of this place."
Trailer: "J. T. Kingsbury, 1st Lieutenant Comd'g"
(Column 2)
Summary: Announces the resignation of Lieut. Col. Pyfer, of the 77th Regiment, because of bad health.
(Names in announcement: Lieut. Col. Pyfer)
To The Town Council
(Column 3)
Summary: Calls the town council's attention to the wall at Spahr's corner which "is likely to fall at any moment."
Masonic Donations
(Column 3)
Summary: Notes the contribution of $200 by the St Louis Lodge, California, to the sufferers of the George Washington Lodge of Chambersburg. J. E. Stover, formerly of Chambersburg serves as the secretary of the St. Louis Lodge.
(Names in announcement: J. E. Stover)
Sad Accident
(Column 3)
Summary: Reports the injury of a young son of J. Hargleroad (who lives a few miles north of Chambersburg) by a cog-wheel in the mill. He is expected to die.
(Names in announcement: Mr. Jacob Hargleroad)
Postmaster Appointed
(Column 3)
Summary: Announces the appointment of John Goshorn to replace Doyle as Postmaster at Doylesburg, Franklin County.
(Names in announcement: John Goshorn, Joseph W. Doyle)
Summary Of War News
(Column 3)
Summary: Reports on the numerous deserters from rebel Gen. Early's army, Gen. Grant's fortification of his army, and Lieut. Cushing's capture of numerous towns and groups of soldiers on the Little River in South Carolina.
(Column 3)
Summary: Provides news on various notable people including Gen. Winder and H. S. Foote.
Good News!! Sherman's Triumphant March! Columbia, S. C., Captured!! Charleston Evacuated! The Old Flag Floats Over Sumpter!
(Column 4)
Summary: Describes the situation in South Carolina, including the capture of Columbia and evacuation of Charleston.
Capture of Gens. Kelly and Crook
(Column 4)
Summary: Discusses the capture of Gens. Kelly and Crook by rebel forces in Cumberland, Maryland.
(Column 5)
Summary: On February 15, by Rev. Barnhart, at the home of the bride's parents, in Hamilton Township, George Woodward, of Wilmington, Delaware, married Emily Switzer, of Franklin County.
(Names in announcement: Rev. Thomas Barnhart, Mr. George R. Woodward, Miss Emily Switzer, Mr. Switzer, Mrs. Switzer)
(Column 5)
Summary: On February 15, at the home of the bride's parents, in the Jackson Hall vicinity, by Rev. McHenry, Rev. Keckler, of Waynesboro, married Matilda Hepfer.
(Names in announcement: Rev. S. McHenry, Rev. William Keckler, Miss Matilday Hepfer, Mr. Hepfer, Mrs. Hepfer)
(Column 5)
Summary: On February 6, in Charlestown, Virginia, Bohn, died at 22 years, 1 month and 10 days. He was accidentally shot by a fellow soldier and was buried in the Mentzer Grave Yard near Fayetteville.
(Names in announcement: Thomas D. Bohn)
(Column 5)
Summary: On February 17, in Hamilton Township, Elizabeth Baum died in her 43rd year.
(Names in announcement: Elizabeth Baum)

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Description of Page: The page includes advertisements.