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Valley of the Shadow

Staunton Spectator: June 25, 1867

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-Page 01-

[No Title]
(Column 05)
Summary: Cudjoe encloses an article from a lecture delivered by Professor Agassiz in which the professor argues that "science inexorably demonstrates" that the bones, muscles, nerves, and blood of "the negro" are as different from a chimpanzee as they are from a white man.
Full Text of Article:

MR. EDITOR:--I send you a part of a spirited paper, the "West and South," published in Cincinnati, Ohio, and a strong advocate of the rights of the State. We cannot expect, even an approach to liberty or to our conditions as it was under our Constitution thirty years ago, until the doctrine of States rights is fully recognized and acted upon in conducting the affairs of Government. I send an article from the pen of Agassiz, the celebrated savant, in which he demonstrates that the negro, now our superior, as rulers construe the principles of our government and carry them out, is as distinct in his bones, blood, &c. from as that which exists between the horse and the ass-or eagle and the owl. Who can study this subject and doubt for one moment that the Maker of us all did not intend the race to be subservient too and the slave of the white man? Ye this is only a subject to amuse ourselves with now. Jocho has changed places with his master, the organ grinder.



The Races.

In a recent lecture delivered by Prof. Agassiz, that gentleman took the following position in regard to the white and black races:

"I have pointed out over a hundred specific differences between the bonal and nervous systems of the white man and negro. Indeed, their frames are alike in no particular. There is not a bone in the negro's body which is relatively the same shape, size, articulation, or chemically of the same composition as that of the white man. Even the negro's blood is chemically a very different fluid from that which courses in the veins of the white man. The whole physical organism of the negro differs quite as much from the man's as it does from that of the chimpanzee-that is, in his bones, muscles, nerves and fibers, the chimpanzee has not much further to progress to become a negro, than a negro has to become a white man. This fact science inexorably demonstrates. * *

"Climate has no more to do with the difference between the white man and negro than it has between that of the negro and the chimpanzee, or than it has between the horse and ass, or the eagle and the owl. Each is a distinct and separate creation. The negro and the white man were created as specifically different as the owl and the eagle. They were designed to fill different places in the system of nature. The negro is no more a negro by accident or misfortune that the owl is the kind of bird it is by accident or misfortune. The negro is no more the white man's brother than the owl is the sister of the eagle, or than the ass is the brother of the horse. How stupendous and how simply, is the doctrine that the Almighty Maker of the Universe has created inherent species of the lower animals, to fill different places and offices in the grand economy of nature!"

Trailer: Cudjoe

-Page 02-

Fall In
(Column 01)
Summary: Argues that while the whites of Virginia have attempted to be conciliatory, "the large majority of the colored population have met all their expressions of good will, all their kindly overtures, all their concessions with insult and disdain." Now, the article argues, "the white men of Virginia" must unite and "crush to imponderable dust the amalgamated masses of factious men that disturb our state."
Full Text of Article:

The white men of Virginia, says the Norfolk Virginian, have been patient until patience has almost ceased to be a virtue. They have expressed again and again, publicly and privately, their desire to live in peace and amity with the freedmen of the State. But all in vain. The large majority of the colored population have net all their expressions of good-will, all their kindly overtures, all their concessions with insult and disdain. We have occupied the positions of the man who, finding himself surrounded by enemies, holds out an olive branch in hopes of pacifying their anger by the mere sight of the symbol of peace. Goaded by the white malignants who have made use of them as ready tools, and wild with the freedom so suddenly thrust upon them, the negroes of the South with some honorable exceptions, are deaf to the voice of reason. They have misunderstood the sentiments of the whites; they have mistaken forbearance for fear; silence for terror. It is high time that they should be undeceived on a matter in which deception is criminal alike to them and to ourselves. It is high time that the white men speak out and let these negroes and their factious leaders know that they are not the masters of the situation. We have the mastery of the field, if we will but stretch out our hands and take it. The-hand-around-the-hat party have concentrated the negroes for their own uses. To meet this the white men of Virginia must concentrate, and concentrated they will present a phalanx of patriotism, intelligence and influence that will crush to imponderable dust the amalgamated masses of factious men that disturb our State. Some of our colored population are still at heart the friends of law and order; and if an opportunity is given them, they will gladly escape from anarchy and agrarianism to an organization sufficiently strong to guarantee them protection. But whatever course they may take, ours is clear. We are strong enough of ourselves if we will be either undertake nor overrate our strength.

The Anglo-Saxon must awake, the white man must be up an doing. We must number our force; we must see that there are no stragglers, that every man is at his post-and answers to his name when the roll is called. To all who value their property, their persons, their liberties, their lives, we say, "FALL IN." This week we must march to victory, on the field of registration.

Interesting Church Case
(Column 02)
Summary: Details a case currently before the Circuit Court involving the local Methodist congregation, which split after the end of the war when, according to the article, "the negroes of their own choice separated from the white people in their religious matters." The two groups disagree over who should be able to use the original church and the court is expected to make a decision on the matter soon.
(Names in announcement: Col. Baldwin, Major Bell, Rachael Phelps, Rev. Lawson, Rev. Conser, A. Shoveller, P. Rozelle, P. Ransom, D. Davenport)
Full Text of Article:

We had in our Circuit Court last week a case which excited a good deal of attention and interest. The Methodist Congregation of Staunton, worshipping in the Church property which they have occupied for over fifty years, recently took a vote under the act of the last Legislature to determine to which branch of the Church they would for the future belong. It appeared that there were 118 persons entitled to vote, of whom 101 voted to adhere to the Methodist Church South, and the other 17 either failed or refused to vote.

This action of the congregation was reported to the Circuit Court to be entered upon the record as the law requires.

When the papers were presented in Court by Col. Baldwin as counsel for the congregation, he was met by Mr. Woodson, of Harrisonburg, and Major Bell, of Staunton, who offered a petition or remonstrance signed by Rev. Conser, who claims to be the preacher in charge of the true Methodist congregation at Staunton, but who seems to be without a flock,, and by Rev. Lawson, a colored preacher who has charge of the large colored congregation worshipping at their own Church in Staunton. The petition was also signed by five other persons of whom Mrs. Rachael Phelps, the mother of the Presiding Elder of the northern branch of the Church is the representative of Rev. Conser's party, and A. Shoveller, P. Rozelle, P. Ransom and D. Davenport are colored men well known in Staunton and belonging to the flock of Rev. Lawson. These petitioners objected-

1. That the Methodist Church in Staunton is built upon a lot which was conveyed for the use of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and that it belongs to right of the members of that Church.

2. That the congregation now in possession of the Church do not belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church-but have resolved to go with the Methodist Church South, and consequently have lost their right to the property.

3. That the petitioners and others, belonging to the two congregations represented by them, are the true members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and as such are entitled to the Church property and

4. That the act of the Legislature under which the proceedings have been had is unconstitutional and void, and the whole movement without validity, and the papers relating to it ought not to be admitted to record.

For the congregation it was replied:

1. That the title to the Church property could not be tried in this proceeding, except so far as this congregation has a right to it, and that if others claim an adverse right they must sue for it in regular form.

2. That the object of the law of the last legislature was to protect local religious congregations who when their Church divided were compelled to make choice between the different branches of it, and to allow them in such cases to take their property with them, and that it was the purpose of this congregation to claim the benefit of that protection.

3. That the petitioners, while they claim to be Methodists, do not pretend to belong to this congregation, and of course have no right to interfere with a proceeding which concerns this congregation alone and cannot effect the rights of any other parties, and that the law of Virginia recognizes only "religious congregations," each of which is, under the law, district from all others, even of the same Church.

4. That in this proceeding the Court will confine its inquirers to the regularity and fairness of the steps taken to ascertain the determination of the congregation, and will hear no objection which is not founded upon some suggestion that by reason of fraud, accident or mistake the vote has not been correctly taken or reported.

5. That the Court will not undertake to pass upon the constitutionality of the law until the question is distinctly presented in an issue fairly made between proper parties-so that a decision will end the controversy.

The discussion took a wide range upon all the points and upon the issues hereafter to arise out of the subject-but the Court refused to entertain the objections of the Petitioners upon the ground that they did not claim to be members of the congregation whose action they opposed, and that in this proceeding the only legitimate inquiry is as to the regularity and fairness of the congregational vote according to the provisions of the act of Assembly.

The papers being found regular were ordered to be entered on the minutes.

We are not informed whether the controversy is likely to be prosecuted farther-but we have heard that there is some talk of claiming the church for the negroes, on the ground that they constituted a majority of the congregation and that they were unlawfully, and against their consent turned out of the congregation and ejected from the Church. On the other hand it is stated, and we think truly, that as soon as the war closed the negroes of their own choice separated from the white people in their religious matters-withdrew from the congregations to which they had been attached, and formed two new congregations under their own preachers. Certain it is that for two years past the worship of the two races in our town has been entirely separate, and we have been under the impression that the separation was not only voluntary, but in perfect good will, and that the white people contributed freely toward building churches for the negro congregations.

Some of the questions presented in the argument of this case, and in the opinion of the Court, are of grave importance, and of general interest, involving not only large amounts of Church property, but principles much cherished by our people.

The law of Virginia, while it refuses to recognize churches as property holders, allows a local "religious congregations" to hold such property as may be necessary "as a place for a public worship, or as a burial place, or a residence for a minister," and the recent legislation has been intended to secure to the local congregations the right not only to select their Church connections in time of Church divisions, but to take with their pastors, their altars and their dead. The time has hardly yet come when such a privilege will be denied them.-That a church which has no membership in a community should attempt to seize upon the places of worship of an unwilling and protesting people is certainly not creditable. If the attempt shall be allowed to succeed it will be a striking commentary upon the constitution which declares that "no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place or ministry whatsoever."

[No Title]
(Column 03)
Summary: Argues that if blacks are "consolidating their vote for the Radical party and against the white people of the South" then "we should allow them the freedom of seeking employment of their Radical friends at the North."
Origin of Article: Lynchburg Republican
Full Text of Article:

We are willing, says the Lynchburg Virginian, to let everybody "vote as he will;" but if colored men who are inveigled into Union leagues, so-called, and other secret political societies, for the purpose of controlling their individual will and consolidating their vote for the Radical party against the white people of the South, choose to be used for such a purpose, we should allow them the freedom of seeking employment of their radical friends at the North. This is the sort of freedom that now exists there and is sanctioned by Congress. No man, even though he may have fought gallantly through the late war, in the Federal army, can escape the ruthless proscription of that party in Congress, if he is not of it, or dares to be conservative. The rule should hold good against Radicalism as well as in its favor. Having set the example, we do not see how they could object to the inauguration of this policy South. We will not persecute any man for his mere opinions; but, in politics, we should do as the Radicals are now doing,--dispense favors to our friends, or, at least, to those who are not our enemies. We want peace, concord and a restored Union. If our views had prevailed in 1860, there would have been no secession, no war, and , we honestly believe, no Republican party, worth the name, to-day. But, all these evils have come upon us, and we propose to remove the effect of them, so far as that may be possible, by removing the greatest impediment to a restored Union-the Radical party.

-Page 03-

Local News--"Jackson Sunday School"
(Column 01)
Summary: Reports that a group of men have opened a new Sunday school about four miles from Staunton.
(Names in announcement: G. M. Cochran, Capt. J. R. Paris, D. A. Staubus, J. F. Davis, Wm. Brubeck)
Full Text of Article:

We are pleased to learn that there is a Sunday School, with the above title, organized and in successful operation, near Mr. G. M. Cochran's mill, about four miles from this place. It is under the control and superintendence of Capt. J. R. Paris, D. A. Staubus, J. F. Davis, and Wm. Brubeck. We congratulate these gentlemen on their success in this laudable enterprise.

Local News--Registration in Staunton
(Column 01)
Summary: Reports that registration began in Staunton last Saturday and that, so far, "the colored exceeded the white considerably" in aggregate registration. The article expresses the belief that this fact "should arouse every white man to a proper sense of the importance of registering without delay."
Local News--Staunton Lyceum
(Column 01)
Summary: Last Monday the Staunton Lyceum debated the question, "Do inventions improve the condition of the laboring classes?" After discussion, the question was decided in the affirmative by a vote of 11 to 5.
(Names in announcement: Dr. C. R. Harris, Capt. Jas. Bumgardner, Gen. John Echols, Prof. Jed. Hotchkiss)
Full Text of Article:

In the Staunton Lyceum, on Monday night, the 17th inst., the following question was discussed: "Do inventions improve the condition of the laboring classes?"

It was discussed in the affirmative by Dr. C. R. Harris, and in the negative by Capt. Jas. Bumgardner. On being submitted to the vote of the lyceum, it was decided in the affirmative by the vote of 11 to 5.

The following question, which was discussed about a month since, was selected to be discussed about a month since, was selected to be discussed again on Monday night, the 1st day of July:--"Is a free school system advisable in Virginia?"

Gen. John Echols was appointed to open the debate in the affirmative, and Prof. Jed. Hotchkiss in the negative

Local News--Railroad Meeting
(Column 02)
Summary: Reports that the citizens of the county met at the court house on June 24 to consider the proposed extension of the Central Railway line. Additionally, they passed resolutions to submit to the voters a subscription to fund the railroad.
(Names in announcement: Gen. Echols, H. W. Sheffey, Bolivar Christian, Jed. Hotchkiss, Col. J. B. Baldwin, H. M. Bell, Col. M. G. Harman, Wm. A. Burke)
Full Text of Article:

The citizens of Augusta assembled at the Court House on the 24th inst., to considered the proposed extension of the Central Railway Line to the Ohio River.

On motion of General Echols, the Hon. H. W. Sheffey was appointed Chairman, and Bolivar Christian and Jed. Hotchkiss as secretaries.

The Chairman, after some pertinent prefatory remarks, introduced Col. Fontaine, President of the Va. Central Railroad, who addressed the meeting on the vast importance, commercially and socially, to the people of Augusta to secure the early construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, with its consequence, a track shortened thirty miles to Richmond.

The meeting was further addressed by Col. J. B. Baldwin and General Echols, H. Hm Bell, Col. M. G. Harman, and others.

The following resolutions offered by General Echols were adopted:

1. Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting it is the duty and interest of the people of the county of Augusta to subscribe their fair proportion of the stock necessary to be subscribed to ensure the completion of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad.

2. Resolved, That the County Court of this county be requested o make the necessary and proper order to submit to the vote of the qualified voters of the county, as soon as practicable, the proposition to authorize said Court to subscribe, on behalf of the county,---- thousand dollars of the stock of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad Company, according to the act of Assembly in such cases made and provided, and that a committee of three be appointed to memorialize the Court to this end.

3. Resolved, That this meeting approve the proposition to hold a Convention for the friends of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, at the White Sulphur Springs, on the 10th proximo, and the Chairman be requested to appoint thirty Delegates to represent the county in said Convention.

4. Resolved, That the Chairman be requested to act as one of the delegates to said Convention.

On motion of Wm. A. Burke the Chairman was authorized to appoint suitable persons in each magisterial district to canvass for the subscription.





JED HOTCHKISS, Secretaries.

Trailer: H. W. Sheffy, Bolivar Christian, Jed Hotchkiss
[No Title]
(Column 02)
Summary: Argues that "the respectable white man who now fails to vote, will live to see his conduct execrated by his wife and children" and will be treated as a man who "deserted his section, his family and his race."
Origin of Article: Richmond Examiner
(Column 03)
Summary: Alexander Laporte and Rachel Ann Roberts were married near Deerfield on June 16 by Rev. George Shuey.
(Names in announcement: Rev. George A. Shuey, Alexander Laporte, Rachel Ann Roberts)
(Column 03)
Summary: Alexander Peaco and Elizabeth Peaco were married near Waynesboro on June 20 by Rev. W. R. Stringer.
(Names in announcement: Rev. W. R. Stringer, Alexander S. Peaco, Elizabeth M. Peaco)
(Column 03)
Summary: Sarah Moneymaker and John Patterson were married near Schutterly's Mill on June 6 by Rev. R. C. Walker.
(Names in announcement: Rev. R. C. Walker, John W. Patterson, Sarah E. Moneymaker)
(Column 03)
Summary: Nannie Roudabush and John Ashby were married at the home of the bride's father on June 20 by Rev. R. C. Walker.
(Names in announcement: Rev. R. C. Walker, Alexander Roudabush, John A. Ashby, Nannie V. Roudabush)

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Do-Nothing Young Ladies
(Column 02)
Summary: Disparages women who do not know how to perform useful tasks such as sewing or cooking and warns men who encounter such a woman to "shun her as you would the chills and fever."
Full Text of Article:

At a recent social gathering a young lady informed me that she never sewed! What do you suppose was the nature of my reflections on hearing that declaration? I said to myself, either that girl speaks falsely, or else she is very lazy. Never sews! Who then, I queried, make your dresses and cloaks, your skirts and bow? Who repairs the rips in your pretty gaiter-boots and darns the holes in your stockings? Is it your aged mother, or your more industrious sister? Or do you hire all your sewing done? Should this last supposition be the case, may you never marry! And the chances are you never will. Not one young man in a hundred can afford to marry a woman who habitually neglects household duties. Young man, if it should ever be your fortune to hear a woman declare that she never sews, beware, shun her as you would the chills and fever. Be insane enough to make such an one your wife, and before the honeymoon is over the horrors of button-less shirts and heelless hose will be upon you; your fair lady's sewing would be done by others, while she moped in idleness, or rioted in fashionable dissipation. Then farewell to your dreams of domestic felicity; they would fade as summer flowers at the touch of frost. I have repeatedly heard ladies, educated and intelligent ladies, declare with actual pride, their ignorance of the art of cooking. "They could not make a cup of coffee to save their lives; and as to making a loaf of good bread or cooking a simple dinner, that is out of their power. Poor miserable unfortunates! Doubtless, mothers are much to blame for thus neglecting their daughters' education, but surely there is no sensible girl who could not, by the exercise of a little energy, perfect herself in this most needful branch of domestic knowledge. False pride, in almost every case, is the only barrier in the way.

It is not considered "genteel"-how I abominate that word!-to do anything useful, and a fashionable Miss would consider herself disgraced should she be seen with her hands in the dough, or caught in the act of sweeping a room. If a young lady of the present day can thump the piano, use a few French phrases, dance, flirt, and do nothing generally, her education is accomplished-she is considered "finished."-Aunt Susie.

Trailer: Aunt Susie