Valley Spirit: June 26, 1867Go To Page : 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |
Opinion Of The Attorney General As To The Powers Of The Military Commanders In The South
(Column 5)Summary: According to the editors, the U. S. Attorney General disputes the constitutionality of the Reconstruction Act, specifically those provisions that provide the military commanders in the South with the authority to remove "proper officers of the State" or to interfere with the criminal courts.
Full Text of Article:
The Attorney General of the United States has given to the President his opinion upon the powers of the Southern military commanders. The opinion is quite lengthy, and we give Mr. Stanbery's conclusions, omitting his arguments, which would not interest the general reader.
The Attorney General after citing the provisions of the original Reconstruction act (the Supplementary act relating merely to the duties of the military officers in the matter of registration and elections, and no question having arisen under it), says: We see clearly enough that this act contemplates two distinct governments in each of these ten States-the one military, the other civil. The civil government is recognized as existing at the date of the act. The military government is created by the act. Both are provisional, and both are to continue until the new State constitution is framed and the State is admitted to representation in Congress. When that event takes place, both these provisional governments are to cease. In contemplation of this act, this military authority and this civil authority are to be carried on together. The people in these States are made subject to both, and must obey both in their respective jurisdictions.
Under the Reconstruction act, the powers granted to the military commander are: the power or duty to "protect all persons in their rights of person and property, to suppress insurrection, disorder and violence, and to punish or cause to be punished, all disturbers of the public peace and criminals;" and he may do this by the agency of the criminal courts of the State, or, if necessary, he may have resort to military tribunals.
The Attorney General sees in the Reconstruction act, no authority, nor any shadow of authority, for the interference with any other courts or any other jurisdiction than criminal courts in the exercise of criminal jurisdiction. There is no provision, even under the plea of necessity, to establish, by military authority, courts or tribunals for the trial of civil cases, or for the protection of such civil rights of persons as come within the cognizance of civil courts as contradistinguised from criminal courts. In point of fact, there was no foundation for such a grant of power, for the Civil Rights act and the Freedmen's Bureau act neither of which is superceded by this act, made ample provision for the protection of all merely civil rights where the laws or courts of these States might fail to give full, impartial protection.
He finds no authority anywhere in this act for the removal by the military commander of the proper officers of a State, either executive or judicial, or the appointment of persons to their places. On the contrary, the act clearly enough forbids it. They, too, have rights which the military commander is bound to protect, not authorized to destroy.
We find in the concluding clause of the sixth section of the act that these officials are recognized, and express provision is made to perpetuate them. It is enacted that "in all elections to any office under such provisional governments, all persons shall be entitled to vote, and none others, who are entitled to vote under the provisions of the fifth section of this act; and no person shall be eligible to any office under such provisional governments who would be disqualified from holding office under the provisions of this act."
This provision not only recognizes all the officers of the provisional governments, but in case of vacancies very clearly points out how they are to be filled, and that happens to be in the usual way, by the people, and not by any other agency or any other power, either State or Federal, civil or military.
He finds it impossible under the provisions of this act to comprehend such an official as a Governor one of these States appointed to office by one of these military commanders. The law takes no cognizance of such an official, and he is clothed with no authority or color of authority.
What is true of the Governor is equally true as to all the other legislative, executive and judicial officers of the State.
The Attorney General goes on to say:
I must not be understood as fixing limits to the power of the military commander in case of an actual insurrection or riot. It may happen that an insurrection in one of these States may be so general and formidable as to require the temporary suspension of all civil government, and the establishment of martial law in its place. And the same thing may be true as to local disorder or riot in reference to the civil government of the city or place where it breaks out. Whatever power is necessary to meet such emergencies the military commander may properly exercise.
In the suppression of insurrection and riot the military commander is wholly independent of the civil authority. So, too in the trial and punishment of criminals and offenders he may supercede civil jurisdiction. His power is to be exercised in these special emergencies, and the means are put into his hands by which it is to be exercised: that is to say, "a sufficient military force to enable such officer to perform his duties and enforce his authority," and military tribunals of his own appointment to try and punish offenders. These are strictly military powers, to be executed by military authority, not by the civil authority or by civil officers appointed by him to perform ordinary civil duties.
If these emergencies do no happen, if civil order is preserved, and criminals are duly prosecuted by the regular criminal courts, the military power, though present, must remain passive. Its proper function is to preserve the peace, to act promptly when the peace is broken, and restore order.
The Attorney General is of the opinion that a military commander has no power under the act to change the laws in force. He says the military commander is made a conservator of the peace, not a legislator. His duties are military duties-executive duties, not legislative duties. He has no authority to enact or declare a new code of laws for the people within his district under any idea that he can make a better code than the people have made for themselves. Congress saw fit to change these laws in certain grave particulars, leaving the other laws in full force, and reserving to "the paramount authority of the United States" to modify or abolish the same.
There is no legislative power given under this military bill to establish a new criminal code. The authority given is to try and punish criminals and offenders, and this proceeds upon the idea that crimes and offences have been committed; but no person can be called a criminal or an offender for doing an act which, when done, was not prohibited by law.
But as to the measure of punishment, it is left altogether to the Military authorities with only this limitation, that the punishment to be inflicted shall not be cruel or unusual.
As to the crimes or offences against the laws of the United States, the military authority can take no cognizance of them, nor in any way interfere with the regular administration of justice by the appropriate Federal courts.
(Column 1)Summary: In the upcoming election, contend the editors, the key issue will be black suffrage. Should the majority of voters declare themselves in favor of granting blacks the ballot, the editors suggest that the Democrats will "submit" to the will of the people. But should the measure not pass, Congress has no right to foist it upon Pennsylvania whites.
Full Text of Article:A Trip Through The Valley Of Virginia
It is grand characteristic of the Democratic party, that it fights for victory by an open avowal of its principles. It does not dodge an issue. It does not conceal its sentiments. It prefers frankness to equivocation; honesty to double dealing. It challenges the enemy to a fair fight, and it can afford to do this. The party that supports the Constitution, which was framed by the wisdom of our forefathers, is never obliged to resort to concealment The principles which these wise men engrafted into our government will stand the test of time. They may be assailed vigorously by the enemies of republican institutions for awhile, but they cannot be destroyed. They have taken root in the hearts of the American people, and that people is not ready to surrender them at the bidding of the advocate of military despotism. Constitutional liberty cannot be crushed out upon this continent without a struggle , fiercer and far more bloody than that which has just closed, and it is high time that this simple lesson should be learned. There are rights belonging to the States, never granted to the General Government, but held by them in reservation, which cannot be stricken down with impunity. The people of the North may not open their eyes to the truth while ten States of the South are governed by the mandates of Congress, but whenever Congress attempts to trample upon the right of one of the Northern States, by assuming power which does not belong to it, a howl of indignation will be heard, which, if not heeded, will be the precursor of civil strife. Men do not feel the wrongs of others as they do their own. They are naturally selfish; they fight harder in self-defence than in defence of their fellow man. It would seem as though an attack upon the rights of Northern States, similar to that made upon the rights of the Southern States were needed to fire the Northern heart and arouse it to a proper understanding of the intentions of the party in power.
Let it once be distinctly understood by the people that this party claiming to be based upon great moral ideas, intends to build up a monster central government, which shall control the domestic affairs and institutions of each State, which shall made Governors mere servants of the President, which shall coerce the while man into political, and (if desirable), social equality with the black man, and then will come a healthy, vigorous reaction which will consign it to everlasting infamy.
Against such unwarranted Congressional interference, the Democratic party of Pennsylvania has entered its protest in language which cannot be misunderstood. It declares the "Federal Government supreme within its Constitutional limits." This is right and proper. It was the idea intended by the framers of the Constitution. The officers of the Federal Government, for everything they desire to do, must scarch in that instrument for their warrant, either expressly given, or by clear implication, and whenever they exercise authority for which they can not find such a warrant, to that extent they become usurpers and forfeit their claim to the confidence and allegiance of the people.
The historian who, in after years, shall bring to his work an unbiased unprejudiced mind, will faithfully record the assumptions of arbitrary powers and gross violations of the fundamental law which we now charge upon the party in power.
It is a source of regret that these institutions of the Constitution do not belong wholly to the past. Had they only been attributable to a state of civil war, in which the passions of men usually run riot, they might have been forgiven and perhaps forgotten. But it is not so. The whole country is in a state of peace, and yet, this lawless disposition remains unsubdued and further infringements upon the rights of the States are proposed-nay are actual being made. In ten States South, the elective franchise is controlled by Congress, and it has some notion of attempting to regulate it in our own State and the other States of the North. When that attempt is made it must be met unflinchingly.-The right of the State to regulate the elective franchise within its limits, must be maintained peaceably if we can forcibly if we must. Our platform utters no uncertain sound in this particular. The forth resolution is as follows:
4. Each State having under the Constitution the executive right to prescribe the qualifications of its own electors, we proclaim as a usurpation and an outrage the establishment of negro suffrage in any of the States by the exercise of Federal power; and we shall resist to the last resort the threatened measures of the leaders of the Republican party to interfere by acts of Congress with the regulation of the elective franchise in the State of Pennsylvania.
It is to be hoped that the Republican Convention in session this day, will have the candor and courage to disclose itself in favor of negro-suffrage in Pennsylvania.-Their brethren of Ohio have done so unequivocally. Why not make it an issue here? We hope that the Convention will do this for the reason that we are "ready for the question"-shall the negro vote in Pennsylvania? And we are ready to submit to the fairly expressed will of the majority of the electors of this commonwealth. If our citizens desire negro-suffrage, let them have the opportunity to say so. They are anxious for the opportunity. If a majority shall declare in favor of it, bitter as the pill will be, we will swallow it.
But if it shall be rejected by our people at the polls, and Congress shall attempt to force it upon us, we will not swallow the pill, nor will we advise others to do so.-Congress must be taught that the sovereign people will not wink at the subversion of their Constitution by their servants.-This question must be submitted fairly to the people of the State before negro-suffrage will be tolerated. Hence we hail with special commendation this resolution of our Convention and bespeak for it the careful earnest consideration of all conservative men. It is an issue which must be met. The question will, sooner or later, come before you for your decision and you ought not wish to shirk if. The responsibility upon you is great. The prosperity of our grand old commonwealth, and the stability of our National Government may be endangered by the introduction of this new element into our political system. Pennsylvanians! are you willing that Congress shall force you to live on terms of perfect equality with the negro? Get yourselves ready form the question.
(Column 2)Summary: Contains a letter written by a member of the entourage from Chambersburg, detailing the group's experiences during their "tour of observation through the famous Shenandoah Valley." Among the people the group encountered on the way to Staunton, Va., were several former residents of Franklin county, including Maj. E. S. Troxell and David C. Byers.
(Names in announcement: Judge Kimmell, W. S. Stenger, C. M. Duncan, Maj. E. S. Troxell, David C. Byers)Full Text of Article:
The writer, in company with Judge Kimmell, W. S. Stenger and C. M. Duncan, Esqs., as was announced to our readers, recently made a tour of observation through the famous Shenandoah Valley, in the State of Virginia. We left home on Monday morning, the 10th inst., were absent just nine days, and penetrated the Valley to Staunton, the county seat of Augusta county, distant 192 miles from Chambersburg by the turnpike road. Traveling in a two-horse private conveyance, the company being congenial, the weather being remarkably fine, and the face of nature presenting a most gorgeous aspect arrayed in her robe of deep green, intermingled with variegated colors of richest hue, all conspired to fill that measure of enjoyment and pleasure which was anticipated from the journey. There was naught to mar the pleasure of the trip, and everywhere on our route we were greeted by the citizens of the "old Dominion" with that open-hearted kindness and generous hospitality for which Virginians have been so pre-eminently distinguished from time immemorial.
As our readers are doubtless anxious to hear something about the region of the country through which we passed, we will proceed to give them a hasty sketch of our tour. First then the
The evening of the first day at our journey found us snugly quartered at the United States Hotel, in Martinsburg, the county seat of Berkeley county. Here me met Major E. S. Troxell, our old friend David C. Byers, and others, formerly of Franklin county. They all expressed themselves well satisfied with their new location, and seemed to be flourishing pecuniarily. Major Troxell holds the position of Clerk of the Circuit Court, quite a lucrative position.-After partaking of a bountiful supper to satisfy the craving demands of our "inner man," and feeling refreshed and re-invigorated thereby, we took a stroll around town to see the sights, accompanied by our attentive and gentlemanly friend, Major Troxell. The magnificent residence of the Hon. Charles J. Faulkner, Ex-Minister to France, and Ex-Member of Congress, first attracted our attention. It is located immediately adjoining the town, on the South side, and has 800 acres of excellent limestone land attached, most of which has a fine crop of wheat upon it. The house stands in from the road several hundred yards, is a plain and substantial building, the architectural style of which is somewhat ancient.-Its beauty consists in its surroundings. The stately forest trees, clean gravel walks and beautiful flower gardens, in the front and on either side, with the hundreds of acres of waving grain tinted with the golden rays of the setting sun, stretching far to the Westward, presented a prospect to our view which was truly grand and beautiful. Such a combination of the useful and the beautiful is rarely seen. Mr. Faulkner is a lawyer of extensive practice and is universally esteemed as an affable, kind and benevolent gentleman. The famous rebel spy, Belle Boyd, resides here. She occupies a genteel looking house on one of the principal streets of the place. The shops belonging to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, which road runs by the town, are located at this point, in which hundreds of hands are at work. We were told that the company pays out every month at this point upwards of $40,000 which naturally stimulates trade and makes Martinsburg, quite a brisk town. It certainly gives evidence of rapid improvement and seems to be extending itself Northward from the railroad. We heard the prediction made by some of its citizens that in three or four years its population will be doubled. It is now about four thousand.
The next morning we bade adieu to our host of the "United States," Mr. Ramer, who, by the way is a clever gentleman and knows how to keep a hotel, and took our departure for "Winchester town," twenty-two miles distant, where we landed about noon, and "put up" at the Taylor Hotel,--Here we met hosts of friends and congenial spirits who vied with each other in their efforts to make our stay in their midst as pleasant as possible. Meeting with such agreeable and intelligent social companions as Robert W. Hunter, Esq., editor of the Times , Major Harry K. Douglas, formerly a class-mate of Mr. Stenger, Mr Coffroth, our whilom friend Charlie Hensel, whose genial face greeted us so cordially shortly after our arrival, and others whose names we cannot now recall, conduced to make our stay in Winchester exceedingly pleasant. In the afternoon, accompanied by some of our friends, we visited the Cemeteries and other points of interest. There are two large cemeteries here, adjoining each other, for the reception of the remains of soldiers who died or were killed in battle in the Valley of Virginia during the war-one for the Federal and the other for the Confederate dead. They are both handsomely laid our and the graves made to range in regular rows. The Confederate Cemetery was gotten up by the private subscription, under the superintendence of a lady of Winchester, whose name we have forgotten, who devotes her whole time and attention to its ornamentation. It was but recently dedicated, Hon. Henry A. Wise delivering the dedicatory oration. The Federal Cemetery will be a fine affair when it is completed, the cost of which, of course is paid out of the National Treasury. A burial corps is still actively engaged in bringing in the remains of the dead and depositing them in their last resting place. The spring West of town, from which it is supplied with water, is a mammoth affair. The waste water thrown off, after supplying the town, would be sufficient to supply several other towns of the same size. Winchester is a beautiful country town, in general appearance not unlike Chambersburg before the burning, lying in the midst of a fertile region of country, and surrounded by numerous handsome private residences.-There is considerable wealth here and the people are noted for their intelligence and refinement.
The third day's travel brought us to New Market, a pleasant village of about eight hundred inhabitants, in Shenandoah county, forty-nine miles South of Winchester, where we remained overnight. The vicinity of New Market was the scene of a severe battle during the war, between "Stonewall" Jackson and General Seigel, in which Seigel was badly whipped. On this day we stopped at Woodstock for dinner, which is located about mid-way between Winchester and New Market, and is the county seat of Shenandoah county. It has the appearance of being a very old town, and is scarcely larger than New Market. Here we met several very clever gentlemen among whom were Capt. Fountaine, who informed us that he had visited our town in the summer of 1863, as an officer in Lee's army, Robert Bragonier, Esq., an acquaintance, and formerly a class-mate of C. M. Duncan, and Dr. Krebs, formerly of Adams county, Pa. These gentlemen all treated us with great kindness and civility. The route of this day's travel brought us over historic ground, having passed the battle-fields of Kernstown, Cedar Mountain, Fisher's Hill, Mt. Jackson and New Market to the latter of which we have already alluded. Many evidences of the bloody strife are still plainly visible.
Our next objective point was Harrisonburg, the county town of Rockingham county, eighteen miles form New Market. Here we were greeted most cordially and entertained most hospitably as by a genial and clever set of gentlemen as it has ever been our good fortune to meet anywhere.-Messrs. Warman & Yost of the Register , Cushen & Sheiry, of the Old Commonwealth, J. D. Price, Esq., and others whom we met there, will please consider our whole party their debtors for their kindly greeting and the assiduous attentions they bestowed upon us during the brief period we remained in their midst. We were only sorry that we could not remain longer. Harrisonburg is a pleasant town of probably 5,000 inhabitants. It is expected that the Manassas Gap Railroad will be rebuilt, and completed to this point before long, when a new impetus will be given to the trade of the place which must result in the rapid improvement of the town and the developments of the material resources of the surrounding country. We consider this one of the best points in the Valley for the investment of capital. Good limestone land in this country can be bought at from forty to eighty dollars per acre, according to locality and improvements. Our Pennsylvania farmers, who contemplate emigrating to Virginia, would do well to visit this part of the Valley before purchasing. On invitation, we visited the office of Mr. J. D. Price, who showed us specimens of copper and iron ore, procured in the adjacent mountains, probably as rich as any to be found on the globe. He also showed us some fine specimens of bituminous coal. Mr. Price is the owner of large tracts of these mineral lands. He is also an agent for the sale of real estate, and is doing an extensive business in that line. Persons desiring information in regard to lands in this portion of the Valley should address Mr. Price, at Harrisonburg.
Bidding adieu to our good friends at Harrisonburg, after several hours of most pleasant intercourse, we resumed our winding way for Staunton, the extreme Southern point of our journey, where we arrived about seven o'clock the same evening.-Here we took up our abode for the time being at the American Hotel, a first class Hotel kept by a first class man-Col. Charles T. O'Ferrall, one of natures true noblemen. Col. O'Ferrall is an intelligent accomplished gentleman and show us every attention necessary to make our stay at his house pleasant and agreeable. His narration of certain thrilling incidents of the late war, in which he was a prominent actor, was highly interesting and entertaining to our party.
Staunton is a handsome, thriving town of some six thousand inhabitants, surrounded by a succession of high hills, which completely overlook the place, giving it a most romantic and picturesque appearance.-There are many fine buildings in the town and we noticed many evidences of energy and business activity among the inhabitants. It is located on the Virginia Central Railroad, running to Richmond, which makes it a trading point of considerable importance. The State Lunatic Asylum and Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institution are both located here and are said to be the finest institutions of the kind in the country. There are about six hundred inmates in both institutions at the present time. The buildings immediately adjoin the town and are large and elegant structures with spacious and handsomely ornamented grounds attached. We had the pleasure of meeting Capt. Garber, one of the editors of the "Valley Virginian," and Mr. Hotchkiss, topographical engineer, both elegant gentlemen, who placed us under obligations for the kind attention. We regret that we did not get to see our editorial brethren of the "Spectator " and "Vindicator ." We had specially designed upon them but our morning walk around town was extended to such a length, viewing the various points of interest, that when we returned to the hotel we felt too much fatigued and oppressed with heat to renew it. We trust our friends will accept this apology for our apparent neglect, taking the will for the deed. Augusta County is one of the largest as well as one of the richest counties in the State. The land is somewhat more rolling than that of the counties through which we had passed, but equally as good if not superior. The bar at this place is said to be the ablest in the State. Hon. A. H. H. Stuart, Hon. John B. Baldwin, and others, equally eminent in their profession, reside here.
After spending a night and half a day most pleasantly in a pleasant town among pleasant people, we took our departure from Staunton on our homeward journey. Here we left the turnpike for the first time, heading to the North Eastward, on a clay road for Weyer's cave, 17 miles distant from Staunton, where we arrived on Friday evening-the fifth day of our trip-and were hospitably entertained overnight by a genial and clever gentleman named Mohler.-Mr. Mohler at one time had a large house near the cave and maintained an extensive establishment for the accommodation of visitors, but unfortunately a year or two ago his house was burned, having caught fire accidentally. It is his intention to rebuild and refit his establishment as soon as he can procure the necessary means. Accompanied by a guide and with torch in hand we made an exploration of the cave the same evening. This cave is truly a wonderful natural curiosity. It extends under a high hill a distance of half a mile, branching off in various directions in caverns of immense proportions with stalactite and stalagmite formations, of every conceivable shape and size, overhanging the arches, piled up on either side and raising their grotesque heads from the floors beneath, altogether presenting a scene of varied grandeur and beauty unequaled by anything in nature or art which we had ever witnessed. These stalactites are formed by the dripping of the water from the ceiling of the cave, leaving a part of its substance in a hardened form attached to the rock above. Stalagmites are formed in the same manner only beginning on the floor where the water falls and forming upwards. The process of formation is very slow, and some of the immense stalagmites found in this cave must have been millions of years in forming. The various apartments of the cave are designated by different names.-For instance one room is called the "Cathedral" with a large stalactite hanging in the centre, shaped like a chandelier, and a large formation on the rocks to the right as you enter, resembling an organ, which, by running a stick over it, gives distinctly all the musical sounds in the scale. Another room is called the "bridal chamber." Here the outlines of a bed are clear and well defined, with other formations giving a tolerably accurate representation of a bed chamber. The largest room in the cave is called "Washington Hall," named so we presume from the fact that in the centre stands an immense stalagmite, some eight or ten feet high, and which, when viewed at some distance, has the appearance of a marble statue of General Washington. This Hall is 300 feet in length, running in a straight line, has an average width of about 20 feet, and the ceiling is about 25 feet high. In former times it was the custom of the people in this section of Virginia to celebrate the 4th of July in the cave, on which occasions this hall would be brilliantly illuminated. Another large room is called the "ball-room." But we must forbear. Anything like an adequate description of this wonderful curiosity of nature would fill a volume. We have neither the space or ability for the task.-We would simply add, that to be appreciated it must be seen, and that it will amply repay anyone to travel several hundred miles to see it.
Bidding adieu to our kind host at the cave, we turned our faces towards Harrisonburg, in order to regain the turnpike. Passing the battle-fields of Port Republic and Cross Keys on our route, where Jackson whipped Fremont and Shields in turn on two successive days, we arrived in Harrisonburg in time for dinner. After again spending an hour or two in social intercourse with our friends there, we resumed our homeward journey, passing over the same route to Winchester, which we traveled on the upward trip. Stopping over Saturday night at Mt. Jackson, a small village in Shenandoah county, we arrived in Winchester on Sunday evening in time to attend service in the Episcopal Church, beneath which rest the remains of Lord Fairfax, one of the pioneers of the Valley of Virginia. Here we were again most cordially greeted by our friends whose acquaintance we formed on our upward trip.
Leaving Winchester on Monday morning we took the Berryville and Charlestown pike, passing through Frederick, Clark and Jefferson counties to Shepherdstown, on the Potomac river, now the county seat of Jefferson county, where we arrived the same evening. We stopped at Charlestown for dinner. This is a pleasant town of probably two thousand inhabitants and was formerly the county seat. It was here that old John Brown and his confederates in crime were imprisoned, tried, and executed. The jail and Court House in which these criminals were confined and tried were almost totally demolished during the war by northern soldiers. Whether this was done by authority or not, it was an exhibition of petty malice anything but creditable to our soldiery.
During our brief stay in Charlestown we took occasion to call upon B. F. Beall, Esq., the talented and spicy editor of the Spirit of Jefferson, and his estimable little wife, whom we knew in our youthful and happier days, many long years ago, when we were a bashful country lad and she a timid blushing maiden just ripening into womanhood. Though the lapse of years has somewhat dimmed the sparkling eyes and faded the blooming cheeks of youthful memory, we were nevertheless gratified to find her so well preserved in person, and surrounded with all the comforts of domestic life, including her husband, Mr. Beall, and some half a dozen "little Bealls."-May she live to present her husband with "half a dozen more."
Shepherdstown, where we stayed the last night of the trip, is a rickety old place, apparently of no great importance. The new Court House is quite handsome building though not large. The new jail is also a neat structure. In the evening here we tried fishing for bass in the Potomac, but owing to the scarcity of bait-fish, we did not succeed. Mr. Duncan caught one about six inches long. Leaving Shepherdstown on Tuesday morning, and coming by way of Sharpsburg and Hagerstown, we arrived at home about 5 o'clock that evening, feeling somewhat fatigued but greatly pleased with our excursion, having traveled all that distance without meeting the slightest accident of any kind.
We have thus hastily and imperfectly noticed the leading points touched on our route. Next week we shall make some general observations on the region of country through which we passed-its topography, the character of the soil, the ravages of the late war, the political sentiments of the people, &c. For the present we must desist for want of space.
Trailer: H.The Despotic Tyranny of Military Rule--How Long Will Americans Bear Its Burden!
(Column 4)Summary: In the wake of Gen. Sheridan's decision to remove Gov. Wells from his post, asserts the article, even "the Radicals themselves pause aghast at the wanton tramplings upon all civil and political rights" under Louisiana's military commander. His determination to set "himself up as the supreme authority" in the military district threatens to "tarnish" the "brillant reputation" he earned during the war.
Origin of Article: Constitutional UnionIndustry Against Agitation
(Column 5)Summary: Under the influence of Radical agitators from the North, blacks southerners are neglecting the crops, choosing instead to focus their energy on political matters, reports the article. This "prevents a speedy rehabilitation of the industrial interests of the South," which has a direct bearing "upon the prosperity of the North."
Origin of Article: AgeA Leak That Could Be Stopped
(Column 6)Summary: Rather than spend the millions necessary to operate the Internal Revenue Service, the article proposes that the federal government shift the burden to the states. Such a move, it avows, would result in "an immense savings of money."
Origin of Article: Patriot and UnionFull Text of Article:Restoration Demanded
In the Internal Revenue service there are about two hundred and forty Assessors and the rame number of Collectors-all at high salaries. Each one of these has a number of Assistants at good salaries, besides a main office stocked with well-paid clerks-Then there is office rent; the heaviest kind of stationery bills; inspectors, detectives, and other incidentals. Many million dollars are thus annually consumed in collecting the revenue, whilst by another process, the great bulk of the expense might be saved, and the army of taxgatherers allowed to enter into the ranks of productive industry, where their labor is so badly needed.
If the Federal Government would annually levy upon each State for its proportionate share of the public debt and interest, and leave the collection entirely with the states, an immense saving of money would be the result. It costs the people of Pennsylvania much less to collect the various taxes than it does the Government to collect a similar amount; and a slight addition to salaries and a small increase in the number of the ordinary assessors and collectors is all that would be required. Of course a modification of the method of laying and collecting the taxes would result. The petty system of stamps, upon a block of matches &c. would be abrogated, Property and wealth of every kind would be taxed in bulk and not in trifling detail, thereby economizing the collection and nowise preventing the dissemination of the burdens equally among the taxable inhabitants according to their business and means.
A system such as the present, requiring tow sets of officials and half or quarter of the collections to pay the expenses is entirely wrong, and should be done away with-The burdens of the people are entirely too great now to warrant adhesion to the extravagant and costly bureaus and departments which sprung up during the reckless period of war. Business of all kinds is shackled and kept down by the taxgatherer. The growth of material wealth has been so check- that the revenues have fallen off from thirty to seventy-five per cent. within the past year. Still the expenses collection have not decreased in the least. It has become necessary, therefore, to consult economy in every department of the Government, and unless the present rulers in the Rump Congress shall shortly become inspired with reason and honesty enough to abandon their political aggrandizement schemes and institute economical measures in public affairs, the people will cast them off forever. Extravagance, recklessness and folly have had their day. The people now want retrenchment and economy. and they are determined to elect no men who are not honest and sensible upon this question.-Patriot & Union
(Column 6)Summary: Offers a $500 reward for the return of some valuables allegedly taken from "a citizen of South Carolina" by Union soldiers during the war. According to a second extract in the article, similar appeals have appeared in nothern journals since the end of the war.
Origin of Article: New Haven Register; New York WorldEditorial Comment: "The following appears in the advertising columns of the New Haven (Conn.) Register, from which it is presumed that the missing property alluded to is somewhere in the viscinity:"
Full Text of Article:Communicated
$500 REWARD.-Stolen from a citizen of South Carolina, during the march of General Sherman, in February, 1865, the following articles for the return of which the above reward will be promptly paid, viz: One Silver Communion Set, consisting of 11 pieces, engraved as a donation to "Selon Presbyterian Church, of Winnsboro, S. C.'
One Silver Tea Set of 3 pieces, engraved "I. E. A."
One Miniature Breastpin, on Ivory.
One Ladies' Ring, engraved "J. R. A. to E. I. C." Single Diamond. The above articles did not cost collectively, over the amount of the reward offered, but are most earnestly desired for the associations connected with them.
These articles, with at least five times their value in other materials of gold, silver, and jewelry, &c.) were taken possession of by a soldier known as Captain Fuller, supposed to belong to the 14th Corps, U. S. A. Three hundred dollars will be paid for the communion Set, (which only cost $262.) Satisfactory references have been lodged with the editor of this paper that the money will be paid if the articles are returned.
The New York World commenting on this advertisement says: "Within the past two years, our New Orleans and other Southern correspondents have more than once written to the World that responsible persons were willing to pay handsome rewards-in most instances far exceeding the pecuniary value of these stolen goods, for the return of plate, pictures, libraries and souvenirs of all sorts, which were stolen from private houses of the South during the war. New England villages are full of such plunder, and in some instances these stolen articles are brazenly paraded as "rebel relics," or "secession trophies." It is time these things were restored to their owners. There is an opportunity in many instances to receive more than their value, and the money can be safely pocketed as a "reward of loyalty," There may be a time when a search warrant will strip some of these New England houses of "relics" and "trophies," and place the unlawful possessors in an unpleasant position.
(Column 6)Summary: The letter endorses William Skinner as "a suitable person to be our candidate for the office of Associate Judge."
(Names in announcement: William SkinnerEsq.)
Local and Personal--New Post Office
(Column 1)Summary: A new post office has opened at Brown's Mill with Andrew Dalrymple as P. M.Local and Personal--Serious Accident
(Names in announcement: Andrew Dalrymple)
(Column 1)Summary: Jacob Whetzel had one of his legs badly injured in an accident that occurred on June 19th while he was cutting trees.Local and Personal--Accident
(Names in announcement: Jacob Whetzel)
(Column 1)Summary: James Long injured himself on June 17th when he fell at work, dislocating his collar bone.Local and Personal--Mad Dogs
(Names in announcement: James Long)
(Column 1)Summary: Notes that a mad dog bit the young son of Edward Spahr in Chambersburg on June 19th. The bite was not severe and the boy is expected to recover fully .Local and Personal--Monument Erected
(Names in announcement: Edward Spahr)
(Column 1)Summary: Relates that a monument in memory of Capt. James P. McCullough was erected in Church Hill by the members of Company C., 19th Reg., P. V. McCullough was the former commander of the company.Local and Personal--Road Making
(Names in announcement: James P. McCullough)
(Column 1)Summary: Criticizes the work of some contractors who have repaired the county's public roads.Local and Personal--American Hotel, Staunton, Va.
(Column 2)Summary: Informs travellers to Staunton, Va., that the American Hotel has "well-furnished comfortable rooms, good beds and attentive sevants."Local and Personal--Closing Of Mercersburg
(Column 2)Summary: Announces the close of the school year at Mercersburg College.
Origin of Article: Mercersburg JournalMarried
(Column 6)Summary: On June 13th, Charles A. Clippinger and Sadie H. Martin were married by Rev. J. Hassler.Married
(Names in announcement: Charles A. Clippenger, Sadie H. Martin, Rev. J. Hassler)
(Column 6)Summary: On June 11th, Jacob Cook and Sarah Black were married by Rev. W. Howe.Died
(Names in announcement: Jacob Cook, Sarah Black, Rev. W. Howe)
(Column 6)Summary: On March 15th, Harry Edmund, son of W. H. and Sarah E. Cormany, died at 6 months old.Died
(Names in announcement: Harry Edmund Cormany, W. H. Cormany, Sarah E. Cormany)
(Column 6)Summary: On May 10th, A. M. Morrison, formerly of this county, died in Columbia City, Indiana. Morrison was 59 years of age.
(Names in announcement: A. M. Morrison)
Description of Page: This page contains advertisements.