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Valley of the Shadow

Valley Virginian: January 21, 1869

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The New Movement
(Column 01)
Summary: The author of this article illustrates the fact, especially since the result of the recent presidential election that African American suffrage is set in stone. It is an undeniable facet of life since society organized on the premise of inequality was virtually swept away at Appomattox as part of the "terms of capitulation." Understanding this, the author suggests that these matters be endured, that people not act on their impulses; for if they do, the South may very well have to face "carpetbagger" oppression. Using the words of Henry Clay, the author recommends that Virginians "make the best practical use of the facts as they exist."
(Names in announcement: Alexander H. H. Stuart, John B. Baldwin)
Full Text of Article:

The surrender at Appomattox Court House settled forever the question of slavery in the United States. Everything since done, to consummate the freedom of the negro, has been a logical and inevitable sequence from that great fact; all the incapacities of the race, as equals of the whites before the law, were signed away--were in effect swept out of existence, by the pen in which Robert E. Lee subscribed his name to the terms of capitulation. Virginia became gradually reconciled to the freedom of the negro and his admission to the right of trial by jury and his perfect equality with the white man as a witness in our courts; and she sanctioned these privileges and rights by solemn acts of legislation. The problem of negro emancipation was, however, not yet deemed complete; the right to vote and hold office, in the former slave States, was considered by the friends of the negro essential to his protection and safety. Upon the validity of the reconstruction acts of Congress and the question whether the negro should enjoy the right of suffrage, as secured to him by these acts, the last presidential election in effect turned. The question was decided against the views of the white men of the South and of the Democratic party; and that decision, in our opinion, is irreversible and final. There is, at this time, outside of the old slave States, not a corporal's guard of any party in favor of trying that issue again. Congress is fixed in its determination; it has the power to compel the execution of its own purpose. Gen Grant who for four years from the 4th of March next, will wield the Executive power of the nation, is committed to negro suffrage, as the settled policy of the country, at least, as far as the South is concerned. Indeed all of the Southern States except Virginia, Mississippi and Texas have already adopted Constitutions based upon universal suffrage; so that, the people of the three States, alone, remain to wage a hopeless contest against the fiat of the country announced in the election of Gen. Grant. That the contest is in fact hopeless--that negro suffrage is fixed upon us, that no reluctance or struggle of ours, can avert or get rid of it, the most vehement opponents of the "new movement" do not pretend to deny. They admit it as a stubborn fact under military rule; they concede that Congress will see that it becomes a constitutional fact, before they will release us from their grasp.

In furtherance of this idea, the Constitutional Convention which sat in Richmond adopted the "Underwood" constitution for Virginia. That constitution as not yet been voted on. A bill passed one house of Congress, to submit it to the vote of those entitled to suffrage under the 14th amendment, in May next: --the Republican committee, in Richmond, had shown their opposition to the postponement of the vote; and were insisting that the monstrous thing should be put to the question before the people at once; serious fears were apprehended that this would be done; and then it could be prevented only by prompt and prudent action. The Republican committee boastfully urged that the game was in their own hands; that the constitution could and should be carried--and who can deny the great danger there was that such would have been the result? Consider the facts for a moment:--The registration gave the whites a majority if only 13,000. A new registration might increase that majority to 25,000--then if 12,501 white persons should vote for the constitution (all the other votes being cast) it would be carried. The negro vote would be cast almost as a unit and to a man for the constitution; the office seekers would go for it in a body--and we have painful evidence that their number is legion; the whites, discouraged, worried and in despair, in view of the hopelessness of the struggle, would, in many cases, make the best of their bad condition, and vote for it, or stay at home; and, then, the straight-out and active republican white voters in the State, constitute no mean force. In addition to all these facts, the registers and conductors of elections, everywhere, are republicans of the iron-clad order; and bitter experience, in other communities proves how easily the secret ballot can be manipulated for a party purpose, if the motive be sufficiently strong; and to hold Virginia by the throat, and to enforce the bestowal upon themselves of the spoils of her office, in all time to come, were surely motive enough to overcome the scruples of the carpet baggers and adventurous patriots whose fate might depend on forcing the count, in order to carry the constitution. The honest, inauspicious, people of Virginia know little of the unscrupulous hardihood, and reckless daring of the men engaged in engineering the "Underwood" Constitution into the organic law of Virginia.

Such being the fixed facts as to negro suffrage, and the fearful possibilities as to the adoption of the "Underwood" Constitution, some of the citizens of Virginia justly entitled to the confidence of her conservative people, invited by a portion of the foremost men our own country, met in Richmond during last month, and after due conference appointed a committee to go to Washington to endeavor, if possible, to save Virginia from the doom of Tennessee, North Carolina, Arkansas and other States of the South--from the doom of perpetual vassalage to the carpetbaggers and misguided negroes. The theory of their action is simply this--our opponents being judges, negro suffrage is a conceded postulate in working out the problem of the future government of Virginia; and whilst it is against all our prejudices and our opinions of just policy, we accept it, in connection with universal amnesty, as the corner stone of reconstruction in our State; give us these, and strike out the hideous features of the "Underwood" constitution, incident to its crushing disfranchisements and others oppressive to our people, and we will advise them to accept it, as a measure of peaceful adjustment and compromise; and leave the white man of the old commonwealth, untrammeled and unfettered to carry on its government and readjust its affairs, as they assuredly will. Doubtless, there will be left, in the constitution, something objectionable to many of us; but once restore confidence in the stability of government in Virginia, let the tide of immigration turn towards her borders, her waste lands be taken up, her mines be opened--her factories, forges, furnaces and workshops be filled with busy artisans, her channels of trade and travel be completed; and wealth and prosperity begin to abound, and who, with free suffrage for all, and eligibility to office for all,--who, we ask, will be strong enough to stand in the way of a quiet and peaceful remedy for any evils which may remain in the constitution as it will be adopted?

Naturally the "new movement" is bitter to the taste of the buccaneers whose coat of arms is, "the carpet-bag," and whose mouths are watering for the rich repast of Virginia offices. Anything calculated to restore a cordial understanding between the colored people and the Southern white men "to the manor born," and to excite the two races to work together in harmony and good will, is wormwood and gall to the gentry who have come from afar to govern both. We are sorry to say that some of our conservative friends seem for the time unfriendly to the movement, and with pardonable warmth and honest impulse say, it is giving up a principle to concede negro suffrage; far better, they urge to let ruin come, let oppressions abound, let misgovernment wreck the Old Dominion, let Moss troopers like the Clayton Militia of Arkansas, or the Brownlow soldiers of Tennessee ride over the country, burn, lay waste, rob, harry and destroy; far better to let the morals of public virtue of our people be invidiously undermined by the ever-recurring temptation to conciliate the wretches who would wield power for the sake of plunder, and to surrender honor and convenience for offices and a share of the spoils--far better all these terrible evils than what? we ask--than to give up the principle of negro suffrage? Not a word of it; but, in short, as we understand the matter--far better to endure all these untold agonies, than to acknowledge as a fact that which all concede is now, and for the future will continue to be, one of the fixed, unalterable principles of the government? We respectfully suggest that it is never wise to act upon the impulse of unreasoning prejudice, but we should remember and be guided by the axiom of Henry Clay that "true Statesmanship consists in making the best practical use of facts as they exist." At any rate it is due to Alexander H.H. Stuart and John B. Baldwin, the trusted sons of Augusta, to wait until they are heard from, to pause, in order to see what they have done, what they shall propose for our action, before pronouncing judgment upon their wisdom or their prudence. They and their associates have certainly arrested the attention of the entire country. They have already now won for themselves the respectful consideration of the nation; they have not been snubbed as it was said they would be; but in all quarters, they have been greeted as the heralds of pacification, and as animated by the noble purpose of building up the very best practicable government for Virginia upon the basis "of the facts as they exist." If they succeed, the country will applaud and honor them; if they fail, Virginia will thank them for their effort to make herself understood in Congress, and to save her from ruin, and, then woe to the "Underwood" Constitution, as it shall be swept before the power of an outraged people, and be utterly defeated--and then after that nous verrons!

A Remonstrance from Virginia
(Column 02)
Summary: A so-called resident of Staunton writing Congress and complaining of rebel judges is exposed as "carpet-bagger." In inflammatory language, the author describes this man as the worst of all kinds of carpet-bagger. Not only is he unsightly, but also poses as a religious man. Above all, the author makes sure to point out that this man is NOT a Stauntonian.
Full Text of Article:

The President of the Senate presented Saturday a remonstrance from Charles King, D.D., a resident of Staunton, Va. against the removing of the disabilities of rebel officers. He says: "The rumor of it creates a panic among Union men. If you relieve these rebel judges we are politically ruined. For God's sake interpose and prevent this. It is false to say that we have not Union men to fill the principle offices, and if not, let them remain vacant until they can be filled with good men from the loyal States. Save me from the tender mercies of wicked, persecuting rebels. The restrictive measures in the reconstruction acts and the fourteenth amendment, and in our proposed constitution, are our only hope. If you can hold the rebels in check until we can adopt the new constitution then, perhaps, as they bring forth fruits meet for repentance, they may gradually and individually be relieved from the curse of a broken and violated law, but for the present we are unwilling to make a curse for them."

[There is no such man in Staunton unless he be some negro or carpet bagger.]--Richmond Dispatch.

The Dispatch is right, this fellow who signs himself Chas. King D.D, and who undertakes to advise Congress, is a carpetbagger of the meanest kind; one who travels in the garb of religion. He is the chap we had occasion to overhaul some months ago, for interfering with the good Methodist of the County and who became truly indignant at us for dubbing him a member of Gen. Schofield's Conference, because he tried to get the military to back him up, but did not. He is a slab-sided seven footer, with the countenance of a cannibal, a red-headed carpet-bagger, and has a foot that reminds us of the following anecdote: An overgrown gawky countryman stopped at a city hotel, on retiring asked the servant for a boot-jack. One was handed him, but proved too small, then another with the same fault. Bigfoot becoming enraged, exclaimed, "Sir, get me a boot-jack, will you?" Waiter in disgust, replied, "mister, you had better go back to the forks of the road and stick your heel in there." This must have been King, the would-be pastor of all the churches in the Valley and the advisor of Congress, &c. Thank the Lord! He is not a resident of Staunton, nor a D.D., unless, D.D. stands for Dirty Dog.

The Railroad will be built by Baltimore and Ohio Road
(Column 03)
Summary: The paper attacks the "fatal delusion" that investors in Baltimore will build the Valley Railroad, even if Augusta fails to subscribe to its stock. The editors hold that unless Valley communities assist with the cost, the price tag will be too high for Baltimore or any railroad company to foot the bill.
How to Pay the Tax
(Column 03)
Summary: This article bolsters other arguments in favor of building the Valley Railroad by illustrating the benefits of competition. Two routes to market, says the author, will inevitably work to save the farmers a great deal of money. Competition will naturally drive shipping costs down and the savings will be passed on to the producers, thereby providing surplus income to be used to pay the taxes necessary to finance the road. Further, even if prices of the mentioned commodity (flour) fluctuate, savings can be made up from numerous other products shipped on the same lines.
Full Text of Article:

The county tax proposed to secure the immediate building of the Valley Railroad through Augusta, will be $18,000 annually until the road is completed--which it is supposed will be in two years from the date of the County Subscription. Before the first $18,000 is called for the work is to be let to contract throughout the length of the county at a cost, by the Engineer's estimate, of $1,472,362. This money will be spent throughout the county; it will add to our circulation an immense sum of money, where we are now suffering from scarcity. IT WILL BE WORTH THE TAX TO THE BUSINESS OF THE COUNTY TO HAVE SO MUCH CAPITAL PUT IN CIRCULATION. Again: The Orange Company has already offered to take this Valley road as fast as completed, section by section, and work it, paying for it at such rates as will relieve the pressure of the county tax, and make the stock at once available. There is no reason why the stock of this road held by the county, will not be as marketable as that of the B. & O. Company--perhaps like it commanding a high premium long before the county bonds are payable.

And again: as fast as the Valley road approaches Staunton, a competition will grow up with the Central Road, and we may expect the necessary result, a reduction in the rates of toll on the Central to at least what is now charged on the Baltimore and Ohio Road; which would make the cost to the farmer of getting his barrel of flour to Richmond only 20cts (the through rates on the B.& O.) or at most 30cts, against the 60cts now charged from Staunton. It is stated in the papers that last year this county raised 100,000 bbls. of flour for market. If so, the saving on flour alone, would be $10,000, or at least $30,000, to offset against the tax of $18,000, leaving in the pockets of the farmers, after paying the tax, from $12,000 to $22,000 clear gain. But if the estimate of the flour crop be high, the excess will be more than made up in a hundred other articles of produce not taken into this estimate.

There can be no doubt with any one who will study the matter, that the county will pay its tax over and over every year, by the saving on the cost of getting to market which will result from the competition of having two routes to market, instead of being at the mercy of one monopoly.

Valley Rail Road
(Column 04)
Summary: This article is directed to anyone who opposes the building of the Valley Railroad. The author attempts to refute all arguments against the subscription. For example, he claims that those concerned with "new obligations" (debt) should look at the railroad in the long term, and see future benefits that far outweigh temporary increased debt. He finishes his piece by vowing to support officeholders who look after the interests of Augusta and push for the road.
Full Text of Article:

DEAR VIRGINIAN--We have been much surprised here to see the opposition manifested in some quarters of your great county against the Valley Railroad. We looked to the wealthy, enterprising, energetic and intelligent county of Augusta to lead in the great improvement which is to traverse the whole length, and we cannot account for her hesitancy in ranging herself beside her sister counties. Especially were we astounded at a communication in the last issue of the Spectator, the spirit of which seems on a par with its logic. Let us examine the arguments by which this writer has been influenced to oppose the Road. "This is no time to incur new obligations." Pray when will the county of Augusta be better able? Now is the time for all the people to put forth strenuous effort to make up the losses of the war. Have not the people of Augusta and Valley been acting on this principle ever since the war closed? And are they not to-day in nearly as flourishing a condition as they were before the war? Did not many individuals have to borrow the means with which they have fenced in a field of their farms and once more re-established themselves in business? Suppose each man returning from the army and finding himself in debt, and without stock or facilities for tilling his farm, had concluded, as this writer, that it would be better to pay off old debts, could we have realized the rapid return to prosperity which we see? No, the question in not as to whether our people should incur new obligations, but whether the incurring of those obligations will lead to a profitable increase of our wealth and prosperity.

But if this writer is wrong on this score he is no less so in regard to the earning example he holds up to the people of Augusta. Rockingham has sunk, he says, the $150,000 she subscribed to the Manassas Gap. That is, this Manassas Gap Railroad was utterly destroyed by the war; its bridges burnt and track torn up by the contending armies, and all attempts at reconstruction of it rendered impossible for four years; and by this means Rockingham lost her $150,000. Therefore, reasons he, Augusta should not run any such risk. This is just as reasonable as it would be to advise Smith against building a house, because Jone's house was once burnt down. Should we be deterred from building a road because, forsooth, it may be destroyed by war? You know but for this cause Rockingham would have held to day her stock. But even with this loss, is Rockingham the loser? Do you suppose to-day that if you were to propose to her to pay up all she has put in that Railroad and take it away from her she would consent? You know she would entertain the proposition. In other words, she considers the $150,000 well sunk in getting the road. Now there is no probability that any such thing will happen as the destruction of the Valley Railroad, and, consequently, the county of Augusta has nothing to fear. She has only to lend her credit and submit to a small tax for a few years to secure a great work which will add millions to her wealth.

Why say the road will be sold under mortgage? Is this the history of railroads in our State? And will it occur in the case of a road passing through the very richest portion of the State. This is a mere bugbear.

The next argument is, to say the least, not generous. Mr. Garrett must build the road, we can afford to wait no longer then he can, therefore let us wait. This is the substance of it. Virginians are not wont to speculate upon the necessities of others, and it must be confessed that it would seem more manly to bear out our portion of the burden when it is acknowledged that we will have the benefit. But the whole assumption is gratuitous, --Mr. Garrett is reduced to no such strait. He has not one tenth of the interest in the Valley Railroad that any one of the counties on its line has. And when he shall wish to connect with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad it will not be at Staunton, or through the heart of Augusta that he will want to make the connection. No, there is no more groundless notion prevalent (we speak knowingly) about this Railroad than that the B. & O. Co., will make it anyhow. On the contrary, let Augusta act in a manner worthy of her past history and her present prosperity; let her seize the opportunity while it exists, let her strike boldly for fortune and greatness and she will obtain it.

Pardon me if I seem in deep earnest about this matter. We feel that it is the great question before our people, that it concerns our prosperity even more than any changes it is our power to effect in Radical policy or carpetbag constitutions. The people of Rockbridge look anxiously to the vote in Augusta. No question since the war has elicited so much interest among them. This is manifested by their subscription which is about as much in proportion as $900,000 from Augusta would be. They wish to be connected with Augusta by railroad as they are in so many other things. But it will depend upon your people. We must and will have a railroad. If not Staunton then to Salem or Lynchburg. Our trade will go to the people who will aid us. And our votes, too, will be given to men representing our interests. We cannot afford to have public servants who are backward towards our vital interests.


(Column 04)
Summary: This article, reproduced for an Orange County paper, explains that Staunton has more than its fair share of intelligent men. The author suggests that one or two of them move to Orange to get the "apathetic county a going." To this the Virginian suggests the author (Bagby) move to Staunton instead.
(Names in announcement: "Sandy" Stuart, John Baldwin, John Echols, Mike Harman, Bolivar Christian, Jed Hotchkiss)
Full Text of Article:

Dr. Bagby of the "Native Virginian," published at Orange Court House, is evidently jealous of our city; we republish his article and for the benefit of strangers say that while we agree with him in regard to the men and brains, we cannot spare a single one of those mentioned, to say nothing of some 25 or 30 others that he did not mention, and most sincerely wish we could add the Doctor to the list. Come over and live among the lights; you can hold your own. The "Virginian " says:

Staunton is the victim of too much brains; in fact, it labors under a tumefaction of intellect. "Sandy" Stuart, John Baldwin and John Echols are more than any one village can hold comfortably--say nothing of Mike Harman, Bolivar Christian and Jed Hotchkiss. Permit these mighty minds to remain in contact, there is no telling when and how often we will be suddenly and astonishingly "conferenced." There must be a separation.--Staunton must divide out her riches. We in Orange would like to have John Echols. He is big enough, strong enough and energetic enough to set our apathetic county a going. We would also like to have "Bolivar." Though he is rather young and is not fond of conferencing, he has about as much sense as all the rest put together, is a walking encyclopedia of literature, and most excellent company besides.

Augusta County
(Column 05)
Summary: This article is a reproduction from a Richmond paper enumerating the great wealth of Augusta County. Included are statistical data regarding crop yields and value, area of land, and different types of agricultural production. The point is to convince all who wish to move to this area that Augusta certainly has the resources to sustain an ever-growing population.
Full Text of Article:

The Richmond Enquirer of the 15th inst., has a leading editorial on old Augusta, an extract we give, which says:

It is with peculiar pleasure that we inaugurate the series of articles long contemplated, and referred to yesterday, upon the resources of Virginia and the advantages she offers to men of all classes and conditions to come and settle within her borders, by inviting attention to the great county of Augusta;--not as great now, in territory, as when her boundaries were the Blue Ridge upon the South and the Ohio and the Monongahela upon the North, and not as central to the mass of Virginia as she was before the political rape of West Virginia from the domain of the Commonwealth, but still possessing an area larger than ancient Attica, and occupying the center of the Great Valley of Virginia, filling up its widest portion, and embracing the hundreds of perennial streams and fertile intervals that form the upper portion of the Shenandoah. The position of preeminence assigned to this county, is one to which it is justly entitled under any circumstances, but is peculiarly its own when "resources and advantages" are under consideration;--in these she not only bore the palm in the flourishing days of Virginia, but she bears it still after all the "abominations of desolation" that war has inflicted upon her in common with her sister counties.

In area, Augusta is the first county in Virginia. In the number of acres under cultivation, Augusta stood fifth, following Halifax, Fauquier, Pittsylvania, and Albemarle, in the order in which they are given, but in cash value of its farms, it stood first among the one hundred and forty-eight counties then in the State, footing up to $10,977,286, while Pittsylvania summed up but $5,760,940, and Halifax $6,924,479.

If we add up the three great cereals, wheat, corn and rye, the production of Augusta in 1860 was 1,117,411 bushels, only surpassed by Loudoun, which had 1,356,708 bushels. The wheat crop of Augusta county was more than that of any New England State, except, Vermont, and was one-forty-third the crop of Virginia; its corn crop was more than that of California, and was fifty-forth of the crop of Virginia; its rye crop was one-nineteenth, and its butter one thirty-third of the production of the State, and it had one-thirty-sixth of the horses.

We have not mentioned the mules, oxen, or sheep; the oats, tobacco, wool, peas, beans, sweet potatoes, barley, buck-wheat, orchard products, wine, grass-seed, hops, flax-seed, maple sugar, and molasses, beeswax, honey, home manufactures, value of slaughtered animals, &c., &c., of Augusta, still in all those she occupied a foremost position, and will not suffer in comparison with any other, and we think we may safely conclude, from this statistical review of her agriculture and its results, that her position was in the front rank of the one hundred counties now left to Virginia, and if in 1860 Augusta had surplus products enough for 100,000 people, we are sure she could advantageously add that many to her present population, and that nowhere would the condition of the emigrant be more desirable in every particular.

The Coming Girl
(Column 05)
Summary: According to the author's predictions, the "coming girl" will shun the frivolities of the past and combine feminine grace with a practical "usefulness." The woman of the future will vote, among other things, as well as take charge of duties formerly left to servants. Suffice to say, the author predicts the coming girl will possess many more virtues than before.
Full Text of Article:

She will vote, will be of some use in the world, will cook her own food, will earn her living, and will not die an old maid. The coming girl will not wear the Grecian bend, dance the Norman, ignore all possibilities of knowing how to work, will not endeavor to break the hearts of unsophisticated young men, will spell correctly, understand English before she affects French, will preside with equal grace at the piano and the washboard, will spin more yarn for the house than for the street, will not despise her plain old mother, her poor relations, or the hand of an honest worker, will wear a bonnet, speak good, plain, unlisping English, will darn her own stockings, will know how to make doughnuts, and will not read the New York Ledger oftener than she does her Bible.

The coming girl will walk five miles a day, if need be, to keep her cheeks in glow, will mind her health; her physical development and her mother, will adopt a costume both sensible and conducive to comfort and health; will not confound hypocrisy with politeness; will not practice lying to please, instead of frankness; will have the courage to cut an unwelcome acquaintance; will not think that duplicity is French refinement; that assumed hospitality, where hate dwells in the heart, is better than outspoken condemnation; will not confound grace of movement with silly affection; will not regard it as the end of her very being to have a beau; will not smile and be a villain still.

The coming girl will look not to Paris but to person for fashions; will not aim to follow foolish fashion because milliners and dressmakers have decided it. Duty will be her aim, and her life a living sacrifice.

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Farm Hands
(Column 01)
Summary: The paper reports that most of Augusta's farmers have secured good hands for the year at $10 to $12 per month.
[No Title]
(Column 01)
Summary: The Rev. Samuel J. Baird of Staunton received a patent for a printing press. He already has two patents for motive power for sewing machines.
(Names in announcement: Rev. Samuel J. Baird)
[No Title]
(Column 01)
Summary: The "popular minister and writer of much note," the Rev. Cornelius Tyree, will preach in the Baptist Church Sunday both morning and night, and every evening during the week.
(Column 01)
Summary: The paper reports that "this great genius" has invented a type-setting machine, and reportedly has a process for making a common sheep-skin equal or superior to the best tanned calf.
Marriageable Ladies
(Column 02)
Summary: The paper endorses Dewit C. Donaldson's advertisement for marriageable ladies. "The gentleman is honorable as well as handsome; is able to take care of a wife, and was a gallant member of the old Stonewall Brigade, who fought and bled freely for his country. We know him to be in earnest, and a match made up under the circumstances will be a good one."
(Names in announcement: Dewit C. Donaldson)
(Column 03)
Summary: Robert J. Hope of Staunton and Miss Ra. Wardenburger of Baltimore were married in that city at the residence of the bride's mother on January 12th by the Rev. Julian E. Ingle.
(Names in announcement: Robert J. Hope, Ra. Wardenburger, Rev. Julian E. Ingle)
(Column 03)
Summary: Benjamin F. Fisher and Miss Lucretia Spitzer, both of New Hope, were married in New Hope Church on January 13th by the Rev. J. J. Engle.
(Names in announcement: Benjamin F. Fisher, Lucretia Spitzer, Rev. J. J. Engle)
(Column 03)
Summary: William Myers and Miss Rachel C. Shumake, both of Augusta, were married at Mt. Sidney on January 14th by the Rev. J. J. Engle.
(Names in announcement: William Myers, Rachel C. Shumake, Rev. J. J. Engle)
(Column 03)
Summary: William H. Bell of Augusta and Miss Kate V. Brand of Charlottesville were married in Charlottesville on December 31st by the Rev. J. E. Edwards.
(Names in announcement: William H. Bell, Kate V. Brand, Rev. J. E. Edwards)

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